akzente 2/2018 The GIZ Magazine Sacred forests Nature conservation in Benin and Togo Cuba in motion Expertise on modern prostheses Protecting migrants Refugees in the Horn of Africa Responsibility Germany’s role in the world
Faces and stories TOURISM IS CREATING PROSPECTS FOR OUR COOPERATIVE. MANAGING DIRECTOR OF AN ARGAN OIL COOPERATIVE IN MOROCCO JAMILA RAISSI The argan forests in the Souss-Massa region are a UNESCO World Heritage Site, but were more or less inaccessible to visitors until recently. On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, GIZ is promoting sustainable tourism and has been working with the Akkain Ouargane women’s cooperative. Visitors can see how argan oil is produced, and the women are able to earn a living. You can ﬁnd more ‘Faces and Stories’ online at www.giz.de/stories. Scan the code with your smartphone to watch the video.
Editorial TAKE A GOOD LOOK AND ACT What the results of GIZ’s latest study on ‘Germany in the Eyes of the World’ tell us. bate about displacement and migration. On behalf of the German Government and the European Union, GIZ is endeavouring to make migration in the region safer: it is sup- porting the establishment of medical facil- ities, training border management staff in first aid among other things, and enabling the judiciary and the police force to thwart the activities of human traffickers. This is no easy task, and one that attracts a great deal of criticism. FINDING OUT HOW OTHERS SEE US, lis- tening to them and questioning our own convictions – everything that we set out to achieve with our study on how Germany is seen is also part of the Congress-Bundestag Youth Exchange programme. Five young women and men report here on what they personally saw as an eye-opener. WE HOPE THAT these diverse views and opinions on the concept of responsibility encourage you to reflect on Germany’s re- sponsibility, our shared responsibility, and also the individual responsibility of every one of us. ACCEPTING RESPONSIBILITY means acting conscientiously and realising that we have a duty. It means not looking away, but tak- ing action. The real skill, however, is not only to pursue our own best interests, but to consider the wellbeing of others – to help in emergencies, for instance. That calls for strength, courage and stamina. THE WORLD TODAY is marked by the for- ward march of nationalism and populism, by the increasingly unclear position of nations that used to be global powers with respect to international responsibility, by a weakened Europe and a huge number of on- going conflicts. In this situation, Germany is needed, in conjunction with Europe, to up- hold Western values. That is the conclusion of the ‘Germany in the Eyes of the World’ study, which GIZ has now conducted for the third time. About 150 academics, pol- iticians, businesspeople and representatives of civil society and the cultural sector in 24 countries were asked how they see Germany. The study has prompted us to dedicate this issue of akzente to responsibility. IN HIS ESSAY, Indian politician and long- serving UN diplomat Shashi Tharoor leaves no doubt that ‘Germany must be a strong and reliable actor if the world is to success- fully navigate the turbulence that charac- terises our age’. The country, he continues, must play a key role in strengthening multi- lateral institutions. WE TAKE A CLOSER LOOK at a project in the Horn of Africa to illustrate what it means to accept responsibility in the ongoing de- ) 3 E G A P ( L E G O V A I R A M / N E F A R G O T O F F O H E I D , ) 2 E G A P ( Y R T S O V N A T S I R T : S O T O H P akzente 2/18 3 SABINE TONSCHEIDT, Director of Corporate Communications firstname.lastname@example.org Our cover page shows a refugee and his daughter arriving in Berlin in 2015. That year alone, about 1.1 million people sought protection in Germany, many of them fleeing the fighting in Syria.
REPORT Protecting migrants Refugees in the Horn of Africa p. 18 OVERVIEW How the world sees Germany Results of the GIZ study ‘Germany in the Eyes of the World’ p. 22 ESSAY What the world expects from Germany By Shashi Tharoor p. 24 INFOGRAPHIC More than just poets and philosophers Surprising facets of Germany p. 30 INTERVIEW ‘Greater focus on strategy’ Double interview on how Germany is perceived p. 32 BACKGROUND Identifying scope for action What the study means for GIZ. p. 36 VIEWS ‘A little more chaotic’ Views expressed in the study p. 37 IN FOCUS: RESPONSIBILITY Responsibility The world is calling on Germany to accept greater responsibility on the international stage. We look at what this means in concrete terms, and the areas in which Germany is already active. L A I R O T I D E 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 NEWS From our work all over the globe New projects and interesting facts and ﬁgures p. 6 ) T H G I R M O T T O B , 4 E G A P ( N N A M Z T U E R C N E V S , ) P O T , 4 E G A P ( P U L L A G N A E S / S E G A M I Y T T E G : S O T O H P REPORT Dancing salsa with a new leg A German company is training orthopaedic technicians in Cuba. p. 10 4 akzente 2/18
Contents SNAPSHOT Empty seas A single picture sums up the problems caused by the high demand for ﬁsh. p. 38 PERSPECTIVES Through other eyes Drake Jamali from Illinois is taking part in a very special exchange programme. p. 44 O F N I E T N E Z K A , Y T I L I B A N I A T S U S 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 INTRODUCING Greetings from Tanzania Annette Mummert helps make sure tax revenue is used for the beneﬁt of the people. p. 50 , ) T H G I R P O T , 5 E G A P ( R I M E D M I R E K , ) T F E L P O T , 5 E G A P ( R E G N I R T S / S R E T U E R : S O T O H P ) T H G I R M O T T O B , 5 E G A P ( X O V M A S , ) T F E L M O T T O B , 5 E G A P ( R E L S N Ä G N I R T A K REPORT From hippos to sacred forests People in Togo are taking responsibility for nature. p. 40 akzente 2/18 5 DIGITAL AKZENTE Our magazine is also available online in an optimised form for mobile devices. akzente.giz.de/en akzente 2/2018 The GIZ Magazine Sacred forests Nature conservation in Benin and Togo Cuba in motion Expertise on modern prostheses Protecting migrants Refugees in the Horn of Africa Responsibility Germany’s role in the world
News IN FIGURES 2.6 billion people more than in 1990 now have access to safe drinking water. But that still leaves another 663 million people who do not. washdata.org 35% of full-time jobs in the world are generated by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In 2013, the figure was 31 per cent, meaning that SMEs have become even more important in creating decent jobs. www.ilo.org 25,871 of 91,523 species of flora and fauna examined are threatened with extinction according to the December 2017 version of IUCN’s regularly updated Red List. Every year, several thousand species become extinct – which poses an increasing threat to the global ecosystem as a whole. www.iucn.org Learning on new ground TRAINING CENTRE IN BONN Wood, glass and the latest environmental standards define GIZ’s new train- ing centre in Bonn. ‘The architecture itself and the way the building is used signals openness and dialogue,’ says Tanja Gönner, Chair of the Man- agement Board. GIZ’s Academy for International Cooperation prepares GIZ’s own experts and the staff of 30 other organisations for assignments in emerging economies and developing countries here. aiz-programm.giz.de 6 akzente 2/18
‘In the ﬁght against climate change, international cooperation is the key to progress.’ MICHAEL BLOOMBERG, the United Nations Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for Climate Action, in March 2018 at a high-level EU conference in Brussels on ﬁnancing sustainable growth Water for Grenada GREEN CLIMATE FUND Rain provides most of the drinking water used by the inhabitants of the Caribbean island state of Grenada. As a result of climate change, however, rainfall patterns seem set to be- come more irregular. Climate models al- so forecast more tropical storms and hurricanes. To ensure that there is enough drinking water in future too, lo- cal construction companies are building 16 storm-proof water storage facilities on the island, with GIZ’s support. To improve water management, campaigns are also encouraging local people to use water more economically. Farmers and ) 7 E G A P ( H C S Z T N E R N A I L U J : N O I T A R T S U L L I hoteliers can apply to the Water Chal- lenge Fund for resources to help them build state-of-the-art irrigation plants and install new, economical water pipe- lines. This is the first time GIZ has im- plemented a project financed by the Green Climate Fund, the world’s largest multilateral climate fund. On behalf of Germany’s Federal Ministry for the En- vironment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, GIZ is also helping Gre- nada’s national water utility to switch to renewable energy. THREE QUESTIONS FOR NANI JANSEN REVENTLOW international human rights lawyer and Director of the Digital Freedom Fund. She acted as lead counsel for the journalist Lohé Issa Konaté from Burkina Faso in front of the still relatively young African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights in Arusha, Tanzania. The journalist had been sentenced to twelve months in his own country for criminal defamation. The conviction was overruled by the Court, thus strengthening freedom of expression. GIZ has been involved in establishing the Court on behalf of BMZ from the outset and continues to support its work. You have a great deal of experience of international courts. What impression did you have of the African Court? It worked more rapidly than comparable courts, i.e. the European Court of Human Rights and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. This is partly because its case- load is lighter, though. The very clear procedural rules are another positive aspect. Was the ruling in this case very important? Yes, it led to another positive ruling in the case of an Angolan journalist. And the High Court of Kenya annulled the offence of criminal defamation, and made specific reference to the ruling in the case of Konaté v. Burkina Faso. How do you see the future of the Court? The African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights is cur- rently working very hard to convince other countries to permit individuals and non-governmental organisations to petition the Court directly. At present only eight coun- tries permit this – but I am optimistic that more will join them in future. www.greenclimate.fund www.giz.de/en/worldwide/15870.html akzente 2/18 7
News Rapid response LASSA FEVER IN BENIN AND NIGERIA In 2014, more than 11,000 people died when an Ebola epidemic broke out in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. The failure of the global community to take swift action was roundly criticised. In response, the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and De- velopment put in place the German Epidemic Preparedness Team (SEEG). The group con- sists of GIZ staff who can be deployed at short notice, along with staff from the Robert Koch Institute and the Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine. Federal Minister for Eco- nomic Cooperation and Development Gerd Müller declared, ‘The international commu- nity was not sufficiently well prepared for the epidemic. We have learned from that.’ At the start of 2018, two teams were de- ployed to Nigeria and Benin, where Lassa fever had broken out. Like Ebola, Lassa fever is a viral haemorrhagic fever. It can pass from one person to another, and the fatality rate is rela- tivly high, making it particularly important to diagnose the disease swiftly. In Benin and Ni- geria, the teams trained laboratory technicians to diagnose Lassa fever, helping stem the out- breaks more rapidly. This was not the first time the teams had been deployed: they had already responded rapidly to outbreaks of plague in Madagascar, dengue fever in Sri Lanka and cholera in Tanzania. In 2016, they fitted out Togo’s na- tional hygiene institute with equipment and expertise to enable staff to diagnose Lassa fe- ver. The laboratory’s director also had more than 120 staff trained nationwide in how to take samples correctly. The preparations paid off: when, in February 2017, a sample was re- ceived from a suspected Lassa fever sufferer, within less than 24 hours teams from the World Health Organization and Togo’s Min- istry of Health were in the affected regions in order to identify and isolate any other infected individuals. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/40435.html Electricity for all NEW TREND Almost 1.1 billion people still have no access to electric power. Off-grid solutions such as solar appli- ances are becoming increasingly important in efforts to make progress. The diagrams demonstrate that solar lights are cheaper and more frequently purchased. s r a l l o d S U 20 15 10 5 0 19.7 Manufacturing cost of a solar lamp 4.4 3.1 s t i n u n o i l l i m 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Half-yearly sales ﬁgures 2010 2015 2020 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Source: UNEP Sport for development YOUTH WORK IN COLOMBIA Although the armed conﬂict that had dogged Colombia for more than 50 years ofﬁcially ended in August 2017, the after-effects will be felt for a long time to come. GIZ is imple- menting the Sport for Development programme to prepare children and young people better for a future of peace. The idea is that taking part in sport will give children and young people self-conﬁ- dence, as well as teaching them to resolve conﬂicts peacefully and accept responsibility. The programme has been commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. Since 2015, GIZ has trained more than 500 football coaches in Colombia, and some 35,000 children and young people have taken part in the sporting activities on offer. Through Sport for Development, GIZ is supporting disadvantaged children and young people in 16 countries. This education and youth work is intended to provide impetus for change – for the individual children and for entire societies. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/42673.html 8 akzente 2/18
Insurance for the poorest in India WIDESPREAD COVERAGE Ill health is always a serious problem, but in India it involves an additional risk for millions of people. Because they have to pay for hospital treatment themselves, ill health can force them into poverty. In- dia’s ofﬁcial health spending is one of the lowest anywhere in the world. But the Government has set itself the goal of providing high-quality health care for all. A health insurance scheme for people living below the poverty line was introduced in 2008 and already provides coverage for the poorest 10 per cent of Indians. In 2018, this scheme is to become the National Health Pro- tection Mission, with the mandate of offering coverage to 500 million people. On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and De- velopment, GIZ is advising the Indian Government and several Indian federal states on the existing and new insurance schemes. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/15859.html NEW PROJECTS INDIA WIKI Official languages: Hindi and English / Capital: New Delhi / Form of government: parliamentary democracy / Head of state: Ram Nath Kovind / Head of government: Narendra Modi / Size: 3,287,000 km2 / Population: approx. 1.4 billion (1) / Population density: 450.4/km2 (2) / GDP per capita: USD 1,670 (3) New Delhi Sources: (1, 2) UN Data 2017, (3) World Bank 2016 ) T H G I R , 9 E G A P ( I K I J I H I H S O Y I K / F R T N E M O M / S E G A M I Y T T E G , ) E L D D I M , 9 E G A P ( A P D , ) T F E L , 9 E G A P ( G N O D O G / E C N A I L L A E R U T C I P : S O T O H P Good health in Congo Partner for businesses Rubber from Indonesia MEDICAL CARE Most of the 4.8 million peo- ple who call South Kivu Province their home have to manage on their own if they suffer health problems. GIZ International Services is therefore supporting Congo’s health system on behalf of the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) for another three years. From 2015 to 2017, 550,000 people saw their access to medical services improve by 30 per cent. Now another 1.5 million people are to be given access. RENEWABLE ENERGY The German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy has commissioned GIZ to implement another phase of the Project Development Pro- gramme for renewable energy and energy ef- ﬁciency. It began in 2009 in East Africa and will be operating in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and Asia until 2023. It supports German companies taking their ﬁrst steps on these often difﬁcult markets by encouraging partnerships between German and local companies and providing long-term support for their project development activities. SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION Indonesia is the world’s second largest producer of natural rubber. Rubber trees grow in parts of tropical rainforests that are often threatened by de- forestation. Within the scope of a pilot project, tyre producer Continental and GIZ are working to make rubber production more sustainable and to establish an electronic traceability system, by providing training for 400 farmers. The partnership is being supported by the develoPPP.de programme, which was set up by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. akzente 2/18 9
LEISÉ GONZÁLEZ A short break from dancing – in her flat in Havana, interpreter Leisé González (28) tells us how delighted she is with her new prosthesis. ‘I can walk so much more smooth- ly.’ But what is even more important is that she can dance far bet- ter – and dancing is her passion. Which she promptly demonstrates at a spontaneous party outside her home.
Report DANCING SALSA WITH A NEW LEG To enable Cuban orthopaedic technicians to provide modern prostheses for their patients, the German medical technology company Ottobock is supplying the island state with expertise and materials. TEXT KLAUS EHRINGFELD PHOTOS SVEN CREUTZMANN
Report A At some point that long morning, spent waiting and tweaking, Leisé González pulls her smart- phone out of her bag and says, ‘Look, that’s me on the Malecón.’ The video, taken on Havana’s famous promenade, shows a young woman dancing salsa – spirited, elegant and passionate. ‘And that was with my old leg – just imagine how I’m going to be able to dance with the new one.’ Leisé González sticks her phone back in her bag and laughs as though she’d just been given the best present ever. The 28-year-old has already spent a quarter of a century without her lower left leg: a truck ran over her leg when she was a child. But she has a bubbly personality, and she loves sport. To- day she is sitting in the workshop of the Nation- al Centre for Orthopaedic Technology in Ha- vana, and getting to know her new prosthesis. She examines the unfamiliar material, moves the foot joint, strokes her new aid that is to make her life easier almost lovingly. It only takes her a few seconds to fit her new lower leg, then she leaps from her chair and walks up and down the workshop from one end to another. She nods barely perceptibly, smiles as though she is listening to her body. If she weren’t wearing shorts, nobody would notice that one leg has been amputated below the knee, she moves so naturally. ‘What a difference!’ she shouts. ‘I can walk so much more smoothly.’ The interpreter has just got her new leg, which Cuban techni- cians produced with German support. The lightweight materials, such as fibreglass and carbon fibre, and the modern foot for the prosthesis were supplied by the company Ottobock. The world leader in the field of prostheses and orthoses also provided the ex- pertise needed. The company, based in the small Lower Saxony town of Duderstadt, has been training Cuban orthopaedic techni- cians since 2016. Experts from the company have introduced them to modern materials and familiarised them with the latest findings in the field of orthopaedic technology. Within the scope of the develoPPP.de programme, which was set up by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH is supporting this upskilling pro- gramme. Cuban specialists are trained both at the Ottobock Inter- national O&P School in Duderstadt and on the ground in Ha- 12 akzente 2/18 Technician Eriel Castillo works with a new laser measuring device to ensure that his prostheses sit perfectly. ‘With the new technology and my training, I can give patients a better quality of life.’ ERIEL CASTILLO, orthopaedic technician
Dancing salsa with a new leg Top: Technicians and patients in discussion in Havana’s orthopaedic workshop. Right: Leisé González dances with her neighbour. The project contributes to these United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). vana, a unique development partnership between Cuba and Ger- many. One of the German experts is Karim Diab, international train- er for arm and leg prosthetics. About a dozen Cuban technicians in white lab coats are closely observing how Diab sits a patient down on a sort of bench and uses a plaster bandage to measure his femur stump. This has the advantage that the plaster moulds itself exactly to the stump under pressure, meaning that no major changes need be made to the actual prosthesis at a later date. This precise proce- dure is much less invasive for patients than the procedure formerly used. Diab has also shown his colleagues how to use plaster tech- niques for lower leg amputees. The great advantage of this tech- nique is that the patient stands when the plaster is applied. The pressure points are thus the same as those the patient will have when he or she comes to use the actual prosthesis later. The Cubans pass on their knowledge The German experts held four two-week courses in Cuba in 2017. They explained how to produce arm and leg prostheses and leg orthoses – external supports – and how to adapt them to bring them into line with the needs of patients. A total of 33 technicians from 14 workshops across Cuba have been trained. They can now pass on their newly acquired expertise to their colleagues in their orthopaedic workshops to ensure that as many patients as possible benefit. Ottobock experts are to run another four courses in Cuba in the course of 2018. The German partners have brought a mass of high-tech equip- ment with them. All the new equipment is to remain in Cuba so akzente 2/18 13 CUBA Capital: Havana / Population: 11.2 million / GDP per capita: USD 7,602 / Economic growth: 4.4 per cent / Human Development Index ranking: 68 (out of 188) Havana Cooperation with Ottobock is part of the develoPPP.de programme, which the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development uses to foster private sector engagement in areas in which business opportunities and the need for development action overlap. Companies receive ﬁnancial and technical support and assume at least half of the overall costs. www.developpp.de/en Contact: Dominik Weidert, email@example.com
Also available on the akzente web- site: in a video, long jump champion Malu Pérez talks about top-level sport with prostheses. akzente.giz.de Top athlete in training: hard on the heels of her bronze medal at the Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro in 2016, Cuban athlete Malu Pérez has her sights set on gold. Ottobock and Cuban orthopaedic specialists are supporting her. that Cuban technicians can continue to work with them – includ- ing, for instance, a laser-beam static meter. Markus Goldmann, Training Manager at the O&P School, explains how to use the equipment to ascertain with high precision whether the patient’s posture, weight and prosthesis genuinely harmonise. Working under the watchful gaze of Che Guevara The high-tech equipment looks futuristic in the Cuban orthopae- dic workshop, where the digital era has yet to dawn. The work- benches are fitted with vices, the surfaces are filled with plaster prints of stumps, retired prostheses, old wooden feet. All the new equipment dates from the part-modernisation of the workshop in 2015, financed by a personal donation from Ottobock President Hans Georg Näder. Two mechanics work on a leg orthosis made of metal, while another smooths edges on a lathe and yet another makes plaster casts. On the walls hang images of Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, the idols of the Cuban Revolution. Cuba was long held to be exemplary in Latin America with its good-quality medical care. Orthopaedic surgeons and technicians understand their trade and have excellent basic training. But time seems to have stood still on the technology front. This is apparent even from the name of the workshop at the National Centre for Orthopaedic Technology – Cuba-German Democratic Republic. For as long as the GDR existed, East German orthopaedic techni- cians from Berlin’s Charité Hospital advised and supported their counterparts from this fellow socialist state, and supplied materi- als. Virtually no technical progress has been made here since 1990. Yet there is a huge demand for well-trained orthopaedic techni- cians and modern materials. About 16,000 of the 11 million in- habitants of the Caribbean island are amputees, having lost a lower extremity. Another 1,600 join them every year, mostly as a result of road traffic accidents or diabetes. The economic difficulties facing the island mean, however, that not all patients can be fitted out with the prostheses, shoes, braces or other aids that they need. The specialists required are also in short supply. The island has 350 or- thopaedic technicians, but only about half this number are able to produce prostheses independently. And some have already reached retirement age. One of them is Armando Márquez, Head of the Cuba-German Democratic Republic workshop. He is 75 years old and has worked there for more than 50 years. By contrast, Eriel Castillo is one of the new generation. The 35-year-old with the short brown hair is especially skilled. That is one reason why the National Centre for Orthopaedic Technology sent him and three colleagues to Ottobock’s training centre in Duderstadt for a ten-month training course. With technicians from all over the world, Castillo was able to bring his expertise up to date. He finished the course in third place. The further training course was almost like learning a new profession for the Cuban. ‘We were well trained, but our knowledge was not up-to-date,’ he told us. ‘Today making prostheses is practically a science – even laser technology is used. That was completely new to me.’ Going for gold in Tokyo in 2020 This morning, Castillo is in great demand in the workshop. The patients tell him where their prostheses rub or are sore, and ask him to help. The Paralympic long jumper Malu Pérez is one of them. In 2016, she won bronze for Cuba in Rio. Ottobock fitted her out with a carbon spring. Pérez is now training for Tokyo in 2020 and she has her sights set on gold. Eriel Castillo is her per- sonal technician. But first it’s Frank González’s turn. He is a 14 akzente 2/18
Dancing salsa with a new leg 45-year-old tourism manager from Cienfuegos Province. He has travelled for several hours by bus to get here this morning, so that Castillo can fit his new prosthesis. The technician has produced it using the new high-tech materials and the expertise he acquired in Germany. González was born with fingers missing on both hands, his left leg is far shorter than the right leg and he has no calf bone. A prosthesis was made for him at home, but it is too heavy and too short. Frank González was unsteady on his feet and did not feel safe. When Eriel Castillo fits his new prosthesis with a carbon foot, the patient’s mood changes instantly. The technician asks if he can roll his foot. He uses an Allen key to tighten a screw at the joint, and checks that the patient’s hips are level when he stands. Then González takes his first cautious steps – and laughs for the first time today. Castillo joins in. ‘The old prosthesis was too simple for such a complex disability,’ he explains. The new foot is designed for energetic efficiency and ensures harmonious movement. In other words, care is taken that the patient hardly notices the prosthesis and wearing it should not tire him out. Out and about without fear at last ‘I always used to be afraid that the prosthesis would bend under me, when I wanted to walk to the bus stop, for instance,’ says González. Technician Castillo is familiar with this fear from other patients too. Often simple prostheses are only a very rough and ready help. ‘With new technology, better materials and my train- ing, I can give patients like Frank and Leisé a much better quality of life.’ The patients are selected by the National Centre for Ortho- paedic Technology. The lion’s share of the costs are shouldered by the Cuban state, but patients have to pay a contribution. For a lower limb prosthesis they pay the equivalent of USD 4.50. Change of scene. Calle Pizarro in Mantilla, a district of Havana half an hour from the workshop. This is where Leisé González lives in a one-room apartment. It is now late afternoon. One of her neigh- bours is celebrating his birthday. Chicken legs are sizzling on a barbe- cue and salsa music floats out of an open window. González asks her neighbour for a dance and spins across the street with him. Later, quite out of breath, she says, ‘I forget everything when I dance. And with the new prosthesis I can almost forget that I only have one good leg.’ Be- hind her back the sun sets over Havana. KLAUS EHRINGFELD reports for German daily newspapers and magazines from all over Latin America. SVEN CREUTZMANN has worked in Cuba for 30 years and is the only German photographer on the island with a permanent accreditation. Today more than ever before he is fascinated by this country in transition. akzente 2/18 15 ) T H G I R M O T T O B , 5 1 E G A P ( S O T O H P M U N G A M / Y R R U C C M E V E T S , ) T F E L M O T T O B , 5 1 E G A P ( A L O N G A T S A C O L B A P : S O T O H P INTERVIEW MARCELO CUSCUNA Regional President of the German medical technology company Ottobock in Latin America Mr Cuscuna, why is Ottobock pro- moting modern orthopaedic tech- nology in Cuba? We saw what Cuba needed. We wanted to demonstrate that it is possible to establish cooperation arrangements like this in a de- veloping country. And we know that GIZ works with many compa- nies and produces good results. The ﬁrst phase of the project in- volved training 33 Cuban techni- cians, and ﬁtting out the main workshop in Havana. Our commit- ment is designed as a medium- to long-term engagement. Why did Ottobock choose Cuba in particular? Firstly, it is the dream of our President Hans Georg Näder. But let’s not forget that Cuba offers great opportunities and a good foundation. Until the 1990s, Cu- ban medicine was exemplary and well developed. It is our goal to improve the quality of life of the people who live here. More and more patients on the island should beneﬁt from good services. What are the beneﬁts of the pro- ject for the company? Cuba is not yet a business prop- osition for Ottobock. It is more an investment in the future. It’s not a question of earning money immediately, although we do see the potential of the market. Over and above that though, we want to demonstrate our social re- sponsibility. Read the full interview at akzente.giz.de. THE PROJECT IN FIGURES 33 orthopaedic technicians were upskilled, 5 experts were given training through internships, and 8 seminars are planned. 4 workshops will be modernised across the country, starting with the central workshop in Havana.
IN FOCUS RESPON- sibility The world is calling on Germany to accept greater responsibility on the international stage. We look at what this means in concrete terms, and the areas in which Germany is already active.
REPORT Protecting migrants Refugees in the Horn of Africa are often exposed to great dangers. The EU and Germany intend to improve their safety on a long-term basis. p. 18 OVERVIEW How the world sees Germany How representatives from the worlds of politics, business, academia and civil society in 24 countries see Germany. The key ﬁndings from the new GIZ study. p. 22 ESSAY What the world expects In these turbulent times, many eyes are turning towards Berlin, writes former UN diplomat Shashi Tharoor. Quite rightly, in his opinion. p. 24 INFOGRAPHIC More than just poets and philosophers Germany presents many faces to the world – and has a few surprises up its sleeve. Interesting facts and ﬁgures. p. 30 INTERVIEW ‘Greater focus on strategy’ In this double interview, two people from Ukraine and Tunisia who took part in the GIZ study speak about how they per- ceive Germany and their expectations for the future. p. 32 BACKGROUND Identifying scope for action The call for Germany to play a greater role also concerns GIZ as a federal enterprise, writes Managing Director Christoph Beier. What that means for our work. p. 36 VIEWS ‘A little more chaotic’ Germans are considered exemplary in many respects, but are also seen as very stubborn with the occasional tendency to miss the boat. A selection of statements from the study. p. 37
In focus: Responsibility Protecting migrants Many migrants across the Horn of Africa are vulnerable to violence and exploitation. Some risk their lives by using dangerous transit routes. Germany is working with the EU to provide better protection for children and adults by improving migration management. 18 akzente 2/18
Report A den Warsama from Djibouti is all too familiar with the suffering endured by mi- grants passing through East Africa. ‘I have seen people collapse and die at the side of the road sim- ply because they had diarrhoea or were de- hydrated. But no one’s life should end like that,’ he says with visible emotion. As a doctor, it is important to him that he can now contribute to protecting migrants across the Horn of Africa. The 31-year-old works for the hospital in Obock, a small port town in northern Djibouti and the location of one of the country’s refugee camps. The Bab el-Man- deb Strait on the Red Sea is a key transit route, for example for refugees from Yemen who have made the crossing to escape the civil war at home, and for Ethiopians seek- ing work on the Arabian Peninsula. Many put their trust in unscrupulous people smugglers, to whom a human life is worth- less. Defenceless along a dirt road Aden Warsama looks after vulnerable mi- grants – children, women and men. He is a member of a mobile health team that pa- trols the coastal roads in specially equipped ambulances, providing care for people in need. Many have entered the country ille- gally and are too scared to approach the authorities for help. ‘When we spot them, we start by giving them water and asking if they need medical assistance,’ he explains. The mobile health teams have been operating in all five regions of Djibouti since late 2017, driving up and down the dust roads and assisting stranded and vul- nerable migrants. Each day, more than 300 migrants arrive in Djibouti, a small coun- try with a population of just one million. That adds up to more than 100,000 arriv- als a year, equivalent to 10 per cent of the population. Although many of the mi- grants are simply passing through, the challenges facing Djibouti are immense. The health teams out on patrol on Djibouti’s desert roads were organised by its Health Ministry and the International Organization for Migration (IOM), a United Nations agency. This primary care for migrants is provided as part of a com- prehensive programme that aims to ensure that migration in the Horn of Africa takes place in a humane and orderly fashion. This extensive Better Migration Man- agement (BMM) programme is coordinat- ed by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Inter- nationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH on behalf of the European Union (EU) and five of its member states, including Ger- many. GIZ is working with a number of other well-known organisations in this context, including the British Council, the UK’s international organisation for cultur- al relations and educational opportunities, and the French development agency Ex- pertise France. According to the United Nations, more than nine million people in and around the Horn of Africa are currently displaced. Some are fleeing war or hunger in their home regions. Some have been persecuted and are seeking political asy- EU EMERGENCy tRUst FUND FOR AFRiCA The EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa is a foreign, security, stability and develop- ment policy initiative established in 2015. It focuses on three regions: the Sahel, the Horn of Africa and North Africa. The re- sources currently allocated to the Fund amount to EUR 3.3 billion. Its target bene- ficiaries include refugees, migrants, return- ees and communities that are hosting refugees and migrants despite living in poverty themselves. Through the Fund, the EU, Germany and other European countries are working together to alleviate suffering in these regions and establish more effec- tive structures for legal migration. www.ec.europa.eu/trustfundforafrica lum. Some are on the move because they have no economic prospects at home, or because their lives have been blighted by the impacts of climate change. These mixed migration flows are imprinting themselves on this easternmost region of Africa. Only a tiny proportion of the migrants and refu- gees set out to reach Europe; most remain within the region. However, in the Horn of Africa – one of the world’s poorest re- gions – protection for migrants is often inadequate and livelihoods are precarious, not only for refugees and migrants but for locals as well. Avoiding conflicts with local communities As diverse as the conditions in the various countries may be, they have one feature in common: they cannot deal with the chal- lenges posed by the mass migration move- ments of the 21st century unaided, at least not in a way that safeguards the basic hu- man rights of refugees and migrants and avoids conflicts, as far as possible, between the new arrivals and local communities. Together with various other European countries and the EU, Germany is there- fore taking on a share of this responsibility. It is a similar situation in Sudan: this East African state is also a destination and transit country for migrants, mainly from Eritrea, Ethiopia and neighbouring South Sudan. Many only stay in Sudan for a few days or weeks; others become permanent residents, some as registered refugees, oth- ers undocumented. Some opt to keep their illegal status because of Sudan’s policy of housing migrants in camps, where people often feel unsafe, live in fear of violence and exploitation, and have few opportuni- ties to earn a living. Life on the move is harsh and it is the weakest refugees – many of them chil- dren – who suffer most. Some of them are travelling with their parents but others have been abandoned in camps or are making their own way towards a new life in a place of safety. According to UNICEF, in 2016, 44 million children worldwide were living in forced displacement, either ) T H G I R M O T T O B , 8 1 E G A P ( A P D / R E T S R O F A I O I G / E C N A I L L A E R U T C I P , ) E L D D I M , 8 1 E G A P ( N E T R A G K R A M / O T O H P N U : S O T O H P akzente 2/18 19
In focus: Responsibility Left: Women with aid supplies in a refugee camp in Darfur Right: Refugees from South Sudan in a reception camp on the Ugandan border The Better Migration Management programme: – provides advice to the governments of the eight participating countries in Africa, – protects migrants from human trafﬁckers and people smugglers, – delivers ﬁrst-aid training for border ofﬁcials, and trains investi- gators and judicial ofﬁcers to take more effective action against trafﬁckers, – raises awareness of the risks of irregular migration. internally or outside their home country, many of them in East Africa. In March 2018, the fate of these chil- dren was addressed at a regional conference which took place in Djibouti and was at- tended by more than 170 international and national experts. Organised by the Better Migration Management (BMM) pro- gramme with the support of child rights advocacy organisation Save the Children International (SCI), the conference pro- vided a platform for experts and govern- ment representatives to seek ways to im- prove the protection afforded to child mi- grants. As Steve Morgan from SCI ex- plains, this is an important issue: ‘In Africa, two child migrants in every three fall into the hands of human traffickers.’ Safe spaces for minors and capacity building for social workers, justice officers, The project contributes to these United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). 20 akzente 2/18
Report iN FiGUREs Eight African countries are participating in the Programme. More than 100 sudanese border oﬃcials have completed first-aid training. 500,000 people were reached by a public exhibition and social media campaign against human trafficking. SUDAN ERITREA DJIBOUTI SOUTH SUDAN ETHIOPIA UGANDA KENYA SOMALIA IN WORDS ‘We want to make migration safer; we don’t try and prevent people from leaving home.’ SABINE WENZ, SABINE.WENZ@GIZ.DE WWW.GIZ.DE/EN/WORLDWIDE/40602.HTML tion, direct assistance and awareness-rais- ing for migrants are intended to help the most vulnerable and stabilise society as a whole in the participating countries. In order to improve migration condi- tions, the programme team works directly with the national ministries and also with civil society groups. Sudan is no exception: the regional coordinator and seven staff members in Khartoum carry out intensive checks on partner organisations, which in- cludes finding out exactly who is behind them. Absolute transparency regarding the beneficiaries and purpose of the support is essential. ‘We keep a very close eye on these matters,’ Sabine Wenz says. Clear rules for partner selection The same applies to the EU-BMZ steering committee, which scrutinises the pro- gramme activities. All the participants ap- ply the ‘Do No Harm’ principle, developed by American academic Mary B. Anderson as a set of rules for international aid, espe- cially in conflict settings. For example, the rules prohibit cooperation with individuals or groups that may be implicated in hu- man rights abuses. Despite the challenging environment, Sabine Wenz believes that engaging is the right approach. It is, she says, the only way to establish contacts with a view to build- ing sustainable civil society capacities, gen- uinely improving conditions for refugees and migrants and uncovering the smug- gling networks. But it all takes time and patience. The process of setting up a health centre in Dji- bouti was completed much more quickly. Improvements in health care are already one of the visible changes here. Obock is not only the base for Aden Warsama’s mo- bile health team; a small clinic opened at the migrant centre here in March 2018. It is already doing much to ease the burden on the hospital in Obock and is thus ben- efiting the local community. That’s as it should be, says Aden Warsama: ‘Universal access to health care is a basic human right.’ — www.giz.de/migrationinafrica and border officials to better identify and refer children to protection services are among the key demands made by the ex- perts. Border officials are often the first to spot unaccompanied minors, whether chil- dren or teenagers, so the provision of train- ing for these officials is one of the practical improvements that can be made in migra- tion management. The first-aid training being offered to border officials in Sudan is another exam- ple. ‘They are the people who have to pro- vide first aid in an emergency,’ says Sami Hadi Adam, who is responsible for the work of the Red Crescent relief agency in Sudan’s Northern state. To date, with sup- port from GIZ, he has organised courses for more than 100 border officials working for the customs and immigration authori- ties and for staff from the assistance points for migrants. ‘The people arriving at the border are often in poor shape,’ he says. ‘Many are severely dehydrated after their journey across the desert. Some have bro- ken bones or have been bitten by snakes or scorpions.’ As he explains, officials previ- ously lacked the training needed to deal with this type of emergency, but with more courses coming up, that is about to change. Stringent criteria are applied to select the candidates for training, as the pro- gramme in Sudan is not without its contro- versies. The International Criminal Court (ICC) has issued an arrest warrant for the country’s President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir on charges including genocide and war crimes. Sudan is still ranked below almost every other country on human rights and political freedoms. Supporting prosecutors and investigators ‘Our work is certainly not about support- ing the Sudanese leadership and the coun- try’s elite or fulfilling all their demands,’ stresses BMM Programme Manager Sabine Wenz. Rather, the long-term goal, she says, is to establish a coordinated migration pol- icy in the programme countries and to sup- port institutions such as the prosecution and law enforcement services that take ac- tion against human trafficking. In addi- ) T H G I R , 0 2 E G A P ( M O C . S S E R P A M U Z / E C N A I L L A E R U T C I P , ) T F E L , 0 2 E G A P ( D I M A N U / N A R A F Z E L A Z N O G T R E B L A / A P E : S O T O H P akzente 2/18 21
In focus: Responsibility Germany in the Eyes of the World For the third time, GIZ has interviewed people across the globe to find out about their perceptions of Germany. The interviewees include representatives from the worlds of business, science and research, politics, the arts, journalism and many other professions across the continents. Here are the five key findings: The face of compassion Germany’s decision to take in so many refugees in 2015 and 2016 has softened its image. Although still a byword for diligence and efficiency, Germany is now also recognised as a compassionate citizen of the world. The decision, although still controversial in Germany itself, has certainly not dented its international reputation; quite the contrary, it has boosted its credibility. However, there is a lingering lack of clarity over the pre- cise motives behind this policy. — Caption: Deer, elephant or lion? Which animal is Germany most like? The world’s opinions vary. Find out more at: www.giz.de/en/ worldwide/63559.html In demand: a more pro-active Germany The world wants a more pro-active Germany – one that assumes more re- sponsibility. Interviewees would like to see Germany taking a leading role in international politics, without acting alone or in an aggressive manner. It should feature prominently as a sovereign ‘soft power’ with a desire to shape the agen- da – a forward-looking nation that devel- ops viable solutions to future challenges in the interests of the wider community. This is an increasingly vocal demand in a world in crisis and turmoil. — 22 akzente 2/18
Overview Rather too traditional In the eyes of the world, Germany re- mains true to itself, with a strong sense of values: justice, the rule of law, com- passion and individual responsibility, with strong institutions and a robust welfare state. Overall, it is viewed as a mature democracy. On social issues, however, most observers regard it as less progressive: from the division of labour within the family to gay rights, Germany is perceived by interviewees to be rather too traditional. — Showing its strengths more clearly The world wonders why Germany makes so little of itself internationally. Why the low profile? Sure, the classics – Por- sche and Mercedes, Goethe and Schiller and the like – are still household names, but little or nothing is known about the rest. The world would like to see more of Germany’s modern and dynamic side, as exemplified by today’s Berlin, and is intrigued to know why Germany is reluctant to make greater use of its strengths for strategic purposes. — Fit for the digital future? Germany is known for its well-perform- ing economy with strong brands that are recognised and admired. According to the interviewees, Germany is an ex- cellent place to do business; its dual vocational training system and applied research are pluses here. But is Ger- many resting on its laurels a little too much? In the age of digitalisation, is Germany too risk-averse? Is there a danger of it falling behind? — tHE stUDy For the qualitative study ‘Germany in the Eyes of the World’, GIZ conducted more than 150 interviews with representatives of 24 countries. The interviews offer profound insights that merit further reflection. It thus complements other studies, most of them standardised, on Germany’s image abroad. The selection of interviewees from all world regions and demographic groups gives the study its unique diversity. Another feature of the study is that the focal points of the interviews are not decided before- hand. It is therefore even more surprising to see the considerable overlaps in interviewees’ percep- tions of Germany in many areas. The report is available in German and English. Similar surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2014. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/63559.html R E Y A B N A I R O L F : N O I T A R T S U L L I akzente 2/18 23
In focus: Responsibility 24 akzente 2/18
Essay What the world expects from Germany We are witnessing increasing turbulence in the international arena. The USA has abdicated its position as the West’s leading power, and the EU is shaken. China is making its mark as a rising political actor at the global level, and the BRICS states are demanding a seat at the decision-making table. In this essay, Indian parliamentarian and author and former UN diplomat shashi tharoor gives his personal view on international events and on the role he believes Germany should play on the world stage. The question of what the world expects from Germa- ny is being asked today, at a time when the globe is in a state of turbulence. Clear strands are visible in the present situation: an abdication of global leadership by a USA turning increasingly protectionist and xeno- phobic; the rise of a strong China, commit- ted to global markets, in which it sees its own continued growth and prosperity; the European Union shaken by Brexit and the unpredictable consequences of a series of elections, most recently in Italy; and amid all this, the emergence of an economically powerful Germany as the lynchpin of liberal democratic Europe. The case seems self- evident that Germany should engage with the rest of the world to help manage this turbulence, contribute to keeping China within the global fold, lead Europe out of its ) 9 2 – 4 2 E G A P ( R E Y A B N A I R O L F : S N O I T A R T S U L L I iN tHis EssAy 1. THE STARTING POINT How the world order is shifting and the questions this raises. 2. THE OTHERS Which actors are playing a key role in global develop- ment on the international stage. 3. THE FUTURE What these observations could mean for Germany and its role. current difficulties, and compensate for the inattention, even surliness, of an increas- ingly truculent Trump Administration. Government stability cannot be taken for granted This is, of course, a tall order by any stand- ards, not least for a Germany emerging from a protracted phase of coalition-mak- ing that has finally given it a Government whose stability and popularity cannot be taken for granted. Yet observers around the world have no doubt that Germany must be a strong and reliable international actor if the world is to successfully navigate the turbulence that characterises our age. Many of the major issues confronting the planet seem ripe for a steady German response. There are the twin backlashes against globalisation: the economic back- akzente 2/18 25
In focus: Responsibility ‘Many of the ma- jor issues seem ripe for a steady German response.’ lash in many Western countries which, un- like Germany, see themselves as losers rather than gainers from the globalisation of the world economy, and the ‘cultural backlash’ against cosmopolitanism and im- migration, arising in many countries in the name of a more authentic and rooted na- tionalism. There is, at the same time, the seemingly unmanageable flow of refugees, which leaves many countries caught be- tween bewilderment and xenophobia; though Germany has set a rare example of consistency and compassion in opening its doors to large numbers. There is the mounting challenge to democracy itself, as polls reveal more and more people, espe- cially the ‘millennials’, to be questioning the value of democracy itself. A recent study by the Harvard scholars Yascha Mounk and Roberto Stefan Foa finds a considerable dilution of support for de- mocracy and growing impatience with the democratic process. Democracy is being challenged even as we face a worldwide backlash against globalisation and cosmopolitanism. An ugly by-product of this is the rise of man- datory patriotism and, at its heart, con- formity as the new badge of allegiance. The global rise of officially mandated national- ism is a surprising phenomenon of our times. Champion of liberal democratic values The century began with globalisation seeming unstoppable, national boundaries appearing ever more permeable and states surrendering more and more of their sover- eignty to organisations like the European Union, to regional and global trade pacts refereed by the World Trade Organization and to international legal institutions like the International Criminal Court. Few could have foreseen such an abrupt reversal of this trend halfway through the second decade of the century. Germany, which has played a steady and stable hand through- out on these issues – and which is seen as a country that has benefited from globalisa- tion while remaining true to itself – is re- 26 akzente 2/18
Essay markably well positioned to guide the world through this crisis. As a champion of liberal democratic values – which it had to fight to rediscover for itself after the horrors of the Third Reich – and the custodian of the principles of freedom in the heart of Europe, Ger- many is particularly expected by the rest of the world to remain true to this mis- sion. It must continue to set an exam- ple of democracy, freedom of the press and respect for human rights if it expects others to emulate these val- ues – values to which not every country is unshakeably committed. Are China and Germany drawing closer together? One country that seems to stand for a different approach to the world – au- thoritarian, centralist, yet committed to the welfare of its own people – is China. Some observers see China and Germany in an embrace born of a mutual perception that they are the two most important countries in today’s world, leading the East and the West, respectively, in a new con- cert of nations that might succeed the USA-led world order in place since 1945. In light of what some critics have dubbed ‘the Trump vacuum’ following the USA’s withdrawal from the 2015 Paris Agree- ment to slow global warming, there is a virtuous element in Germany and China making common cause as two responsible nations compensating for a truant Ameri- ca. At the 2017 G20 Summit in Hamburg, Merkel stated that the Sino-German rela- tionship must expand in a ‘time of global insecurity’. Shaped by Westphalian principles But I suspect Germany is well aware that a Merkel-Xi partnership would not necessar- ily be welcomed elsewhere in the world. While Germany does not share the USA’s geopolitical rivalry with Beijing, it is surely conscious of the mistrust in South and South-East Asia regarding China’s strategic intentions, its tendency to assert claims at ‘Germany should recognise that it has a key role to play in strength- ening multilateral institutions.’ the expense of other countries in the re- gion and its willingness to back those claims with military muscle (as evidenced in the South China Sea, on its Indian fron- tier and, most recently, along its Himala- yan border with Bhutan). President Trump’s abandonment of the Trans-Pacific Partnership free-trade agreement, which would have created a USA-centred free- trade bloc comprising Pacific Rim coun- tries from Chile to Viet Nam, has elimi- nated one mechanism for subsuming Chi- nese ambitions in a larger partnership. But that is a vacuum Germany cannot fill alone. Instead, Germany should recognise that it has a key role to play in strengthen- ing multilateral institutions. It is the insti- tutions of global governance that have so akzente 2/18 27
In focus: Responsibility ‘Germany could lead a push to make room for emerging powers in a new world order that can pre- serve the institu- tions and values that Germany holds dear.’ Union as a viable economic entity as well as a bastion of democracy, and keeps Chi- na within the global fold. A USA detached from the world is bad enough; a disinte- grating EU, and a China that the West pushes away, especially a China that looks askance at the prevailing global institu- tions, could potentially be a disaster. The annual survey of global experts conducted by the World Economic Forum points to some interesting changes. Tradi- tionally, when asked to cite the biggest threats to global stability, participants would single out issues such as climate change. More recently, the same issues have been replaced with income inequality, migration and interstate conflict – tangible problems that have cropped up in many Western countries. These are all issues to which Germany has answers and can set an example for others to learn from. far kept the peace – institutions that need to change, adapt and be protected with vigour and commitment. The world as we know it has largely been shaped by West- phalian principles, but the strongest po- tential disruption to Westphalian sover- eignty is the rise of a strong China, fuelled by economic prowess, military might and a renewed eagerness in the application of its hard power. Defending democracy – even in difficult times Globalisation and strong economic bonds have brought nations closer by giving them a stake in this global system. But when the system itself confronts trouble, its constit- uents look to protect their own narrower interests, channelling expectations and re- sentments born from globalisation against that very phenomenon. Germany must lead a sustainable level of engagement, which confirms its commitment to globali- sation as a win–win proposition for all the world’s nations, maintains the European 28 akzente 2/18
Essay ‘At the end of the day, it is clear that the global system will need to be reformed – and reformed swiftly if it is to adapt to the tremors we are witnessing today and to reinvent itself for a chang- ing world.’ Britain, taking the world from an age of Pax Britannica to Pax Americana. They, with their allies, designed a new world or- der – the one that is now beginning to tot- ter. Now that another power, China, seems set to exercise a certain dominance in the world, rules will need to be rewritten, cre- ating, naturally, a degree of imbalance in the process. How the world negotiates this imbal- ance remains to be seen. Building walls and looking within, as Trump and some others wish to do, is not a step in the right direction. Germany knows there is a better way – and the world looks to Berlin to show us that way. — SHASHI THAROOR was an Under-Secretary- General to former UN Secretary-General Koﬁ Annan from 2002 to 2007. Born in London in 1956, the law graduate, author and politician is one of the most important Indian writers today. He was awarded India’s most prestigious litera- ture prize as well as the Commonwealth Writers’ Prize for his work ‘The Great Indian Novel’. As an Indian parliamentarian, he is the Chairman of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on External Affairs. In 2014, he took part in GIZ’s study on how Germany is perceived in the world. This is seen in the response to old-fash- ioned globalisation by countries that want to be recognised for their own increasing significance in the world and that have been clamouring for some time for old powers to make room at the high table. Take for instance the BRICS – Brazil, Rus- sia, India, China and South Africa – which, in its original embodiment, was identified as those nations whose rapidly growing economies were challenging the size and preponderance of the aristocratic G7. In- deed, in the last 15 years, Brazil, India and Russia have caught up with the smallest G7 economy (Italy) in terms of nominal GDP, while China has overtaken Japan to become the second largest economy in the world. The nominal GDP of the BRICS countries combined is similar to that of the European Union or the United States and will in all likelihood overtake both in the not too distant future. By 2040 the BRICS will account for more of the world’s GDP than the original G7. But what is it that draws the BRICS close as nation states in their organised ‘re- bellion’ against the global order? As it hap- pens, one major attribute all BRICS mem- bers share is their exclusion from the places they believe they deserve in the existing world order. And being denied legitimate positions on the global stage by today’s dominant powers is proving to be very strong glue that holds the grouping togeth- er and, at some level, causes them to look for alternatives. Germany has a major stake in the preservation of world order and could lead a push within the Western democracies to make room for emerging powers in a new world order that can preserve the institu- tions and values that Germany holds dear. Germany knows there is a better way than building walls At the end of the day, it is clear that the global system will need to be reformed – and reformed swiftly if it is to adapt to the tremors we are witnessing today and to re- invent itself for a changing world. In the early years of the 20th century, it was the United States that eclipsed Great akzente 2/18 29
In focus: Responsibility More than just poets and philosophers Germany presents many faces to the world – and has a few surprises up its sleeve. USA 368 Nobel standings Germany has the third highest number of Nobel Prize winners after the USA and United Kingdom, and signiﬁcantly more than France (62 medals), Sweden (30) and Switzer- land (26). s a l t A d l r o W : e c r u o S United Kingdom 132 Germany 107 The ﬁve most success- ful German-language hits from Germany Kraftwerk – ‘Autobahn’ Nena – ‘99 Luftballons’ Trio – ‘Da Da Da’ Rammstein – ‘Amerika’ Peter Schilling – ‘Major Tom (Völlig losgelöst)’ e l l e W e h c s t u e D : e c r u o S Behind Singapore In the global Cultural Inﬂuence Rankings, Germany is just 14th – in stark contrast to its economic position. The list is topped by Italy, France, the USA, Spain and the United Kingdom. Even the small island of Singapore is placed above Germany. The ranking is compiled annually by Wharton University in Pennsylvania, media company U.S. News & World Report and advertising agency Young and Rubicam.
Development assis- tance in comparison In absolute terms, Germany is the world’s second largest donor by a clear margin. The largest donor is the USA. J A P A N F R A N C E Z M B : e c r u o S in U S D billio n 1 0.3 7 9.5 0 Deployment of German armed forces abroad Some 3,700 German soldiers are currently deployed abroad under the mandate of NATO or the UN. a t s i t a t S : e c r u o S U G E R M A N Y U S A German companies abroad Germany has economic links around the globe and has more companies abroad than any other country. 2 7,4 2 0 2 6,9 1 9 NY A M R GE A S U 2 3,4 4 5 M O D G D KIN NITE U G M P K : e c r u o S N IT E D KI N G D O M 1 8.0 1 2 4.6 7 3 3.5 9 SCHOOL 1995–1996 2003–2004 2011–2012 Germany joins the United Nations Security Council. 1980–1981 GDR joins the United Nations Security Council. 1977–1978 1987–1988 FRG joins the United Nations Security Council. Back on the international stage How Germany has gradually become a partner on the international stage after the deep ﬁssures of the Second World War. 1973 Both German states become members of the United Nations at the same time. 1945 Adoption of the Charter of the United Nations, in which Germany is referred to as an ‘enemy state’
In focus: Responsibility ‘Greater focus on strategy’ Amel Saidane from Tunisia and Victor Andrusiv from Ukraine were two of around 150 people who took part in the GIZ study ‘Germany in the Eyes of the World’. In a double interview, they discuss what Germany means to them.
Interview A mel saidane, Viktor An- drusiv, what do you associ- ate with the term ‘responsi- bility’ when you think about Germany? Amel Saidane: Consistency, leader- ship in Europe, and values of citizenship, because it’s never only about yourself; it’s also about the community. Germany does not give the impression of a manipulator nation with a hidden agenda; rather it conveys an image of transparency and clarity in its approach and communica- tion. ‘Germany might want to think of ways to reinforce its leadership in Europe in order to strive for stronger cohesion within Europe.’ AMEL SAIDANE Victor Andrusiv: Looking at Germa- ny’s responsibility, particularly with respect to Ukraine, I find two factors important: reliability and – like Amel – consistency. The first to me means that people have a high level of trust as to what is said by Ger- man officials. With regard to the second factor, what is said should be supported for a long period of time, regardless of internal political changes. Where in international aﬀairs is Ger- many acting responsibly, and where should it do more? Saidane: Germany is acting responsi- bly in areas like immigration, environ- ment, personal data protection, etc. It has shown commitment in peace negotia- tions, even those relating to the sensitive Palestinian-Israeli conflict. However, Germany might want to think of ways to reinforce its leadership in Europe in order to strive for stronger cohesion within Eu- rope. Andrusiv: From a Ukrainian point of view, Germany is acting very responsibly with regard to our sovereignty, human rights, democratic freedoms, and financial and technical support of reforms. akzente 2/18 33 In the past it was often said that Ger- many was an economic giant but a po- litical dwarf. Would you say this descrip- tion is still accurate today? Andrusiv: I would say this descrip- tion has become more accurate in the re- cent past. The active role of Germany has been dissolved in the formless interna- tional approach of the European Union (EU). More and more conflicts around the EU remain unresolved because of a weak European Commission: the conflict in Syria – seven years – and the conflict in Ukraine – four years – are just two exam- ples. Saidane: Somewhat accurate, I would say. In the past, Germany had a reserved international policy approach, probably due to its special history. From there it has moved forward in a responsible fashion, staying open and respectful to other na- tions. In my view, though, Germany should work on developing a strong inten- tional communications strategy to foster a perception of balanced leadership at both the economic and the political level. Some argue that Germany, together with its European partners, should balance out the United States, Russia and China. It should defend the values of the West- ern world. Do you think the EU is ﬁt to handle such a job? Andrusiv: The most important issue for the EU today is to balance itself and its close territories. The growing menace of right-wing populists in Poland and Hun- gary, left-wing populists in Italy, Brexit – all of this could become a trigger for a huge regional crisis. The problem requires new approaches and solutions. It is impor- tant to change the position from ‘we are disturbed’ to ‘we actively respond to any new threat’. Without this, the EU will not
In focus: Responsibility In focus: Responsibility be able to compete with the USA or China. Saidane: I agree that Germany should create a counter-balance through Europe because someone has to do it in order to balance the craziness of the world and the strong tendency of nations to close up. However, processes within the EU might hamper that, so Germany might some- times have to stand up as a country and not wait for the rest of Europe. THE INTERVIEWEES AMEL SAIDANE Having trained as an electrical engineer in Germany, Saidane initially worked for Siemens and Microsoft after she returned to her home country of Tunisia. She has founded several start-ups and is now a much sought-after entrepreneur, advisor and mentor. VICTOR ANDRUSIV A political scientist, Andrusiv is the Germany has repeatedly been depicted as a soft power. Do you agree with that attribution? Director of the Ukrainian Institute for the Future, an independent think tank founded in 2016 by representatives from the world of politics and the public and private sectors. Saidane: It is indeed a soft but firm power. Germany has often shown courage to lead in making tough decisions, such as on migration. It engages in dialogue, which gives it credibility. It’s never a one-person show in Germany, unlike some other coun- tries. Andrusiv: I agree. However, the rise of new threats and conflicts can turn Germany into a ‘weak power’. It is ob- vious that soft approaches do not al- ways bring expected results, prompting Putin and others to use this in their inter- ests. So it is time to recognise that soft approaches have to be accompanied by other means, including financial and mili- tary measures. How would you assess your country’s co- operation with Germany? 34 akzente 2/18
Interview ‘From a Ukrainian point of view, Germany is acting very responsibly with regard to our sovereignty, human rights and reforms.’ VICTOR ANDRUSIV Saidane: I see it as a leader in industry and in digital advancement, attracting tal- ent from all over the world, which will give it more openness and power for diversity. It will reinforce its leadership in rethinking Europe to make the EU stronger and more agile. And it will find a way to connect with the African continent and with inno- vative African youth. Andrusiv: In my mind, Germany is at the heart of a new global infrastructure for peace and sustainable development. — Interview: Friederike Bauer INSIGHTS INTO UKRAINE The ‘Germany in the Eyes of the World’ study that Amel Saidane and Victor Andru- siv took part in is the third of its kind to be conducted by GIZ. Based on this model, GIZ has now developed a study on how Ukraine is perceived in Germany. The country became the centre of attention – including in Germany – for a short period following the protests in Kiev, the events in the Crimea and the war in the east. However, this is no longer the case, al- though relations between Germany and Ukraine remain diverse and multifaceted. GIZ interviewed 44 German experts on Ukraine from the worlds of politics, busi- ness, science, academia and civil society. The key ﬁndings: the Ukrainian economy is a ‘sleeping giant’ rich in raw materials, but with a great deal of unused potential. The lack of legal certainty damages com- panies, which is why judicial reform is so important. The migration of young, well- educated people poses a further threat. Politically, it is important that Ukraine re- mains a ‘European project’. — Download: www.ukraine-woche.de The printed version can be ordered by emailing firstname.lastname@example.org Saidane: Consistent and frank. But it stays fragmented. It should move more to- wards the strategic level, legal frameworks, etc. Germany has strong leverage in Tuni- sia and should maybe be using this to lobby and influence. Also, German coop- eration tends to work in isolation. A stronger collaboration with other donors could lead to a stronger impact and less fragmentation. Andrusiv: In Ukraine, we receive a lot of support from Germany relating to in- frastructure, decentralisation reform and technical assistance. However, the results of cooperation should be visible faster. For example, a lot of funds are spent on decentralisation processes. The aim is to support the community level so that it has more political and financial power. Very small communities can cooperate with each other in order to better manage the construction and maintenance of schools and hospitals. About 3,400 com- munities decided to do so; 7,800 have yet to come up with a decision. In my view that could be much faster. The real prob- lem, however, is a lack of professionals in local management. Germany should change its approach from supporting the Ukrainian state requests to supporting civil society and investment, as well as in- creasing support for education. Coopera- tion should take more of a horizontal ap- proach: German business – Ukrainian business, German NGOs – Ukrainian NGOs, etc. What would you expect from this coop- eration in the future? Andrusiv: I would expect strong ties between Germans and Ukrainians on the level of society, not government. Saidane: As I said, I would prefer Ger- many to work more on the strategic level rather than engaging in projects. Ten years down the road, where do you see Germany in the international arena? ) T H G I R , 4 3 D N A 2 3 E G A P ( O K N E T S O R A T S , ) 6 1 0 2 E C N E R E F N O C S R E D N U O F G N U O Y E L L E W R E T S E W , T F E L , 4 3 D N A 2 3 E G A P ( K E H T O T O H P : S O T O H P akzente 2/18 35
In focus: Responsibility Identifying scope for action The third study on ‘Germany in the Eyes of the World’ shows the continuation of a trend – again, the world calls on our country to accept greater international responsibility. What does that mean for GIZ? By CHRISTOPH BEIER GIZ’s third ‘Germany in the Eyes of the World’ study was published in early 2018. Even more strongly than in the first two stud- ies, Germany is accorded an important lead- ership role in international politics. While the first study in 2012 encouraged Germany to try on a larger size of shoes, this latest study no longer encourages but urges. What is new is that this is explained by pointing to the weakness of other actors. For us as a federal enterprise, which provides practical support for the German Government in the field of international cooperation around the globe, one thing is clear: it is important to systematically ad- dress the expectations and fears of others, and the role they would like to see Ger- many play. By comparing our self-view with the way others see us, we can come closer to identifying our own blind spots. This provides openings for discussions, and opens up new fields for action which we can identify for our commissioning parties. The perceptions of our partners in 120 countries worldwide can be incorporated into the policy dialogue, and influence German and European policy. If Germa- ny’s role in the world changes, the regula- tions, priority areas and procedures affect- ing our work might also shift. Let’s take one example: if Germany’s dual training system and thus Germany’s role in technical and vocational education and training enjoys an excellent reputation 1.5 million people live in areas marked by conflicts, violence and a lack of security, in countries such as Afghanistan, Mali and Syria, and their neighbours. That is equiva- lent to about one fifth of the world’s popu- lation. If the German Government, in its coalition agreement, underlines the joined- up approach to be taken by foreign, secu- rity, development and human rights policy, then we too will keep this interconnected- ness in mind. Responsibility means taking a stance – even in difficult times. Responsibility, for us as a federal en- terprise, also means respecting and driving forward global agendas that Germany has undertaken to support. They include the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development with its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement on cli- mate change. Moving closer to these goals through our daily work is an important part of Germany’s international responsi- bility. Politics provides the framework for our work at GIZ – we help translate the policies into action as efficiently and effec- tively as possible. Sometimes this can also mean translating things in the other direc- tion. This study is nothing other than a reflection from the outside in. We very much hope that the results of this new study contribute to a ‘responsible’ debate about Germany’s role on the international stage. Given the current state of the world, there can be no doubt that this debate is urgently needed. — CHRISTOPH BEIER is a GIZ Managing Director and has been involved in all three studies. email@example.com in many parts of the world, in all probabil- ity these services will be increasingly re- quested by partners in future. If we are now seen more as active players than as at- tentive listeners, we must ask whether we can achieve the political objectives of the German Government with the role attrib- uted to us, or if we can further hone the way we act. In terms of the leadership role that Germany is credited with inside Eu- rope, we as GIZ must look and see where we can best support the German Govern- ment in playing this role in the field of in- ternational cooperation. For our work, this means that crises are increasingly becoming the norm. About 36 akzente 2/18
Views ‘In areas where the USA goes too far, Germany doesn’t go far enough. Getting involved in other countries, for ex- ample. The results would perhaps be different, thought out more logically and with greater foresight.’ GHANA ‘You only have to look at Germany’s football teams to see how diverse the country is.’ ‘Germany should learn how to make life a little more chaotic and therefore more interesting. In Germany everything works. Nobody steps out of line.’ INDIA ‘Germans still write letters. By hand. They put them in an envelope, go to the post office and queue up for ages to post them. And, best of all, they still pay in cash, using coins and notes!’ ‘Germany is resting too much on its lau- rels – on its current economic strength. You need to focus instead on how you plan to remain competitive as far ahead as 2040.’ USA ‘Germany has a lot to offer but it doesn’t promote itself enough. Germans should blow their own trumpets more.’ EGYPT CHINA BRAZIL ) 6 3 E G A P ( H C S Z T N E R N A I L U J : N O I T A R T S U L L I akzente 2/18 37
EMPTY SEAS A SEA OF FISH is hung up to dry in the sun at a processing plant near Hangzhou in China’s Zhejiang Province. Fish is a vital source of protein and a key economic factor all over the world. In the developing countries alone, the fishing industry directly or indirectly employs some 200 million people. However, rising global demand has resulted in danger- Photo: REUTERS/Stringer ously high levels of overfishing in many marine waters.
Report FRoM HIPPoS To SACRED FoRESTS At a biosphere reserve on the border between Togo and Benin, the local people are taking responsibility for nature conservation. And they have realised that when animals and plants are doing well, life is better for them too. TEXT AND PHOTOS KATRIN GÄNSLER
From hippos to sacred forests K Koffi Akodewou has rolled up his trousers. Slowly, he pulls the narrow wooden boat towards the bank. The 22-year-old wades through the wet sand and briefly turns back to Afito Lake. In the distance, it is possible to make out a small, black dot. It is one of the three hippopotamuses Akodewou was up close to just a few moments ago. He had sailed towards them in the boat, as numerous people looked on from the bank – including the many fish traders waiting for the fishermen to land their catch. Hippos are part of everyday life here, but that doesn’t make the massive animals any less fasci- nating. Akodewou, himself a fisherman, knows that he has to approach them quietly and carefully, so as not to scare them. Care and composure are essential if more tourists are to be shown the hippos in future and learn about their significance. In Afito, the animals are now welcomed by all. The village is located in Togo on the border with Benin. Since 2017, the area at the Mono River Delta has been recognised by UNESCO as a biosphere reserve. The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH supported both West African na- tions on the path to international recognition. And that was just the beginning. On behalf of the German Federal Environment Ministry, GIZ is now working with partners from the area to successfully in- volve local people in the nature conservation project. Around 530,000 people in Benin and 360,000 in Togo live outside the area that forms the core zone of the reserve. The initiative focuses on the 90,000 or so people living in direct proximity to this. In a survey, the vast majority of them stated that natural resources were key to their subsistence and survival. These include fish from the 544-hectare lake, herbs for traditional medicine from the sacred Godjé-Godjin forest and sources of drinking water. Day trips from the capital The village of Afito is a good example of how local people are in- creasingly recognising that nature conservation benefits them. Some 200 people have visited Afito since the region was designated a biosphere reserve by UNESCO. Previously, no foreigners ven- tured here. Many of the 350 villagers now hope that the hippos will attract more day-trippers from Togo and Benin. Their village is located within easy distance of both Togo’s capital Lomé and Co- tonou, the commercial centre of Benin. akzente 2/18 41 What’s more, the hippos not only attract nature lovers. The mammals, which can weigh up to 4,000 kilogrammes, and their nutrient-rich dung are also a magnet for fish. The fish population in the pachyderms’ habitat is on the rise. And big fish are hugely important for the people in Afito and the inhabitants of the 63 nearby villages, as they live off what they catch. People like Agnonkpon Agomayi. She and her husband de- cided to move to Afito many years ago. Back then, the fishing was still good. The mother of seven wanted to use the income to fi- nance her children’s schooling. She was worried when the catches began to deteriorate. Agomayi makes her way towards a poster laid out on the shore of the lake. It shows four different sizes of fish. The smallest are just eight centimetres long, much too small to gut, fry, transport cost-effectively via the dirt road and hope that someone in the next village buys them. Agomayi points to the poster and says: ‘The men have often only brought back fish this size in recent years.’ Overfishing is primarily the result of population growth in the two neighbouring countries of Togo and Benin. More people need more food, which is compounding the pressure on natural resources. TOGO Capital: Lomé / Population: 7.7 Millionen / GDP per capita: USD 578 / Economic growth: 5 per cent / Human Development Index ranking: 166 (out of 188) BENIN ToGo Mono Delta Lomé Porto-Novo The Mono River Delta is home to many endangered species. Yet the area’s biological diversity is under threat. on behalf of the German Federal Environment Ministry, GIZ is advising national and regional partners on nature conservation. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/27427.html Contact: Udo Lange, firstname.lastname@example.org
Report Report Left: Small, medium or large? Fishermen compare their catch with the sizes on a poster. Right: Fish trader Agnonkpon Agomayi is happy with the catch. Part of it will be lunch for her family, the rest will be sold. ‘When the fish got fewer and smaller, we were often really hungry. Now we eat well every day.’ AGNoNKPoN AGoMAYI, fish trader The project contributes to these United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). To support better nature conservation and nonetheless ensure that those living near the lake have a good quality of life, GIZ’s local partner organisation, the Centre de Développement des Actions Communautaires, has launched various initiatives in cooperation with the villagers. In 2017, an association was founded that now has more than 150 members. It organises patrols on the shore of the lake. The hippos have been hunted by poachers in the past, despite their being on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List of Threatened Species. Controls on child labour The association has also introduced further changes. Many children used to go fishing instead of going to school. It was there- fore decided that fishermen must be at least 15 years old. This is also monitored during the patrols, which fish trader Agomayi is part of. Her impression: ‘People have accepted the rules.’ Large- meshed nets have also been introduced to protect the small and, in any case, unprofitable fish. These allow them to slip through the net. A poster, which is displayed at regular intervals along the shore of the lake, helps people to check their catch. It is a simple tool that enables the fishermen to monitor the impact of the measures on a voluntary basis. Agomayi has no need for the poster today. She can see im- mediately that even the smallest fish are at least 16 centimetres long. The trader lifts the heavy basket on to her head and makes her way home, where she prepares the fish. Some of them will be 42 akzente 2/18
From hippos to sacred forests lunch for her family, the rest will be fried and sold for the equiva- lent of just under EUR 14. For some time now, the fishermen have also been catching larger fish such as tilapia. These can be sold individually and pro- vide a welcome source of additional income. Agomayi looks up from her pot briefly: ‘When the fish got fewer and smaller, we were sometimes really hungry,’ she remembers, ‘but now we eat well every day.’ The fish is served with sauces prepared using leaves. Too many trees used as firewood An hour’s drive from Afito is the Godjé-Godjin forest. Many of the trees there are hundreds of years old. They are situated in the core zone of the Mono Delta biosphere reserve. These areas cannot be inhabited by humans, and farming is forbidden. If you make your way carefully and quietly through the forest, you might be lucky enough to spot a white-throated guenon, a small and shy species of monkey. The squirrels and various species of bird are easier to find. Koffi Koumedjina makes his way almost reverently through the forest. He has removed his sandals. The 46-year-old priest is responsible for preserving knowledge and the practice of tradition- al remedies. He comes here every day. He treads quietly and care- fully, stopping every now and again. Tall and lean in his white cape, he is dwarfed by the old trees. Koumedjina cannot imagine life without the forest. He not only finds herbs for his medicine there. He and two other priests also tend to three fetishes. A fetish can be a statue, an altar or even a tree. In this case, they are three sources of drinking water. Koume- djina is responsible for his family’s fetish, known as Bagbo, which translates roughly as ‘we will return’. The source lies in a clearing, surrounded by tall trees. It is a sacred place that residents of nearby villages also visit when family members are ill. Without the forest and its trees and plants, Koumedjina would not be able to perform his task of preserving knowledge about rem- edies. ‘Herbs are at the heart of traditional medicine. That’s why we have to protect the forest,’ he says. Yet, until recently, there was little willingness to do so. Many trees were felled for firewood. Large and old trees were used to make boats. The sacred Godjé- Godjin forest was dwindling by the day. The establishment of the biosphere reserve, with political backing from the environment ministries in Togo and Benin, came just in time. A local association, founded by residents, has already reforested 30 hectares in the Godjé-Godjin forest together with the three priests and the GIZ project partners. Volunteers ensure that no trees are felled and that there is no hunting in this area. Nature is to be left in peace. ) P O T , 3 4 E G A P ( N O M I S E N N A : O T O H P KATRIN GÄNSLER is a freelance journalist who re- ports from 15 countries in West Africa. She has expe- rienced a great deal, but is still impressed by what she sees. This time was no different – from the hip- pos to the great seriousness with which the people in the Mono River Delta support nature conservation. akzente 2/18 43 INTERVIEW KIRSTEN PROBST is responsible for biodiversity at GIZ. Among other things, she previously spent five years advising the Namibian Ministry of Environment and Tourism. Why is biodiversity important? Humankind is altering habitats quickly and extensively, even in the most remote corners of the world. With the added problems of environmental pollution and climate change, livelihoods are at risk, as functioning ecosys- tems provide clean water, space for nature tourism, and protec- tion from flooding, earthquakes and much more. How can the loss of diversity be stopped? Solutions have to work on many different levels. The establish- ment of conservation areas is an important strategy. These can take many different forms – the International Union for Conser- vation of Nature has defined six categories, ranging from strict nature reserves, where human visitation, use and impacts are strictly controlled, to protected areas with sustainable use of natural resources. What is GIZ doing in this ﬁeld? GIZ is involved in around 50 pro- jects, in which we advise part- ners on nature conservation in specific areas. These are com- missioned by the German Fed- eral Ministries for Economic Co- operation and Development (BMZ) and the Environment, Na- ture Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). Half of GIZ’s pro- jects are based in Africa, a quarter in Asia and a quarter in Latin America/the Caribbean. Read the full interview at akzente.giz.de. THE PROJECT IN FIGURES 90,000 people living in direct proximity to the conservation zone benefit from the project. 150 inhabitants are involved in an association dedicated to change. 30 hectares of land in the Godjé-Godjin forest has been reforested.
Perspectives A German-American exchange programme provides young professionals with new insights into the mentality and culture of their host country. Five participants tell us how.
Through other eyes LINDA KRAFFT from Lower Saxony, 22 years old, oﬃce manager ‘Young people here find it hard to believe that studying for a degree in Germany costs less than in the USA.’ ‘I knew I wanted to experience life in another country and improve my English. After reading about the Congress-Bundestag Youth Exchange Programme in a newspaper, I applied. I am now living in a small town in Iowa with lovely host parents. I do a lot with them – including going to my first-ever American football game. Through my host parents, I have also gained an insight into the problems of the middle classes – for example, the exorbitant cost of medical care if someone gets ill. I’m now working in the library of the local college, where I also get to talk to the students. They are really interested in the German education system and are full of questions. They find it hard to believe that studying for a degree in Germany costs less than in the USA. When I get back, I want to study English and become a teacher. My time here has strengthened my conviction.’ — akzente 2/18 45 FABIAN ROCKEL from North Rhine-Westphalia, 24 years old, automotive mechatronics technician ‘When I was looking for a job in Cincinnati, Ohio, I had to start by explaining the German education system to the businesses there. Americans don’t know about the dual system as such. In America, it’s not certificates or diplomas that count. You have to actually show what you’re capable of. But with my knowledge and ability, I had no problem finding a job after the language course and my time at college. I’m now working at a car dealership in Cincinnati. The people here are very open and friendly. But I was surprised by the working hours. Many of my American colleagues work 50 to 60 hours in a typical week. And if you miss work be- cause you’re ill, the time is deducted from your wages. Everyone talks about the American dream, but I’ve learned that you have to work very hard to achieve that. I see it through different eyes now and have come to appreciate life in Germany much more than I did before my time in the USA.’ — ‘In America, it’s not certifi- cates or diplomas that count. You have to actually show what you’re capable of.’
Perspectives KAIT KINSEY from Maine, 25 years old, radiology assistant DANIELA VOGEL from Bavaria, 23 years old, industrial mechanic ‘Germans are role models in the field of renewable energy and environmental awareness.’ ‘I was given the opportunity to represent my host country, Ger- many, in a role-play at the International Model United Nations conference in Bonn. We had to manage a fictitious food crisis, and my role was not straightforward. Germany is a leading Western power. I was therefore expected to remain neutral and be consid- erate of other nations, while at the same time considering what is right for Germany. During my time here, I’ve got to know how the Germans tick. When it comes to food, for example, I know how important good quality is to them. They value organic produce and want to know where everything comes from. They are also role models in the field of renewable energy and environ- mental awareness. I therefore set out to be a good problem solver in the role-play – because that’s how I see the Germans. I’m also fascinated by the German culture. And food is part of that, of course. It’s important here. I was talking to my work colleagues at the Waldkrankenhaus Protestant Hospital in Spandau recently about all the different things people say before a meal here: “Mahl- zeit!”, “Lass es dir schmecken!”, “Guten Appetit!” We don’t have that in America.’ — ‘The highlight of my time in the USA? I got to experience US President Donald Trump’s inauguration live in Washington, D.C. I had been interning for a Congressman who got me a ticket for the ceremony. Then, the next day, I took part in the Million Women March against President Trump – quite the contrast. I was moved to see so many people taking to the streets for what they believe in. I had never witnessed an important political movement before. So seeing something like that was amazing. Before that, I got the chance to experience everyday American life on the west coast of America, in Washington State. I worked for a construction company near Seattle and lived with my host mother and a Chinese student in a multicultural house share. I was particularly impressed by the friendliness of the American people, their hands- on approach and, of course, the amazing landscape. I climbed high mountains for the first time – something I would never have done before. But now I know that if I really want something, I can achieve it.’ — ‘I was moved to see so many people taking to the streets for what they believe in.’ 46 akzente 2/18
Through other eyes THE CONGRESS-bUNDEstAG yOUtH ExCHANGE PROGRAMME Beyond the surface – providing insights into real life in another country. The Congress-Bundestag Youth Exchange Programme (CBYX) offers young people from the USA and Germany the opportunity to get to grips with the mentality and culture of their host country for one year, thereby strengthening transatlantic relations through personal exchange. Many trainees and young professionals have taken part in the programme in recent years – with support from GIZ, which organises the intercultural programme in Germany on behalf of the German Bundestag. In the USA, the partner organisation Cultural Vistas runs the pro- gramme on behalf of the US Congress. What makes the programme unique is that members of both parliaments get personally involved as a kind of ‘sponsor’ and support their scholarship holders on a one-to-one basis through, for example, meetings or intern- ships. Another special feature is that CBYX is geared towards young women and men who have already com- pleted vocational training. They are given the opportunity to travel abroad with a scholarship. This closes a gap in exchange programmes, the majority of which are aimed at school pupils and students. www.usappp.de Contact: Theo Fuß, email@example.com The project contributes to this United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG). tHE PROJECt iN FiGUREs 25,000 participants have already travelled abroad through CBYX. 5,300 young professionals have worked in their host country for a year. 34 years of sponsored exchanges so far. DRAKE JAMALI from Illinois, 23 years old, degree in public administration ‘Even if the USA has set out on an isolationist course, most Americans feel very close to Germany.’ ‘I was surprised by how international Germany is. I live near Frankfurt am Main with a host family of Ethiopian heritage. We share the house with Indian exchange students. We all celebrated Christmas together and were quite the colourful team. In the USA, Germany is not really known as a country of immigrants, which is why this was such an interesting experience. In Radolfzell am Bodensee on Lake Constance, where I did my language course at the start of my stay, my host mother had also taken in refugees. She taught me everything I need to know about waste separation – typically German. I now know what goes in the compost and what goes in the paper bin. During my time at Lake Constance, I expe- rienced the elections in Germany. The events were much more serious than they are in the USA. Politics is quite a common topic of conversation here. It’s not always easy to explain why people elect a particular politician or a party. Even if the USA has set out on an isolationist course, most Americans feel very close to Germany.’ — akzente 2/18 47
Info EDITOR’S Digital Picks Ideas for Africa START-UP PooL Umbilical cord clamps from a 3D printer and much more: Make-IT in Africa supports young African entrepreneurs. The programme is implemented by GIZ on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. Browse the start-up pool on the website. — www.make-it-initiative.org PEACE OPERATIONS WoRLD MAP oF PEACE oPERATIoNS Congo, Ukraine, Afghanistan: the Center for International Peace operations (ZIF) in Berlin recruits civilian experts for deployment with the oSCE, EU and UN and provides specialist training to make them mission-ready. The World Map of Peace operations on the ZIF website shows all the current peace missions, including those led by other organisations, such as the African Union. — www.zif-berlin.org/en.html Against hunger WEB MAGAZINE The international community has pledged to end hunger by 2030. The web magazine ‘2030’ scans the globe for ideas and experiences that support pro gress towards this goal, and presents them in an accessible format. The articles are written by expert researchers and representatives of civil society and business. — www.weltohnehunger.org/home.html APP How much renewable energy potential does your region offer? This app from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) provides answers, with a range of features including maps and geolocalisation. — YOUNG VOICES VIDEoS Around 35,000 young people have already been sent around the world with BMZ’s weltwärts volunteer programme, working in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe and oceania. on the weltwärts YouTube channel, they talk about their most memorable experiences. — www.youtube.com/weltwärts 48 akzente 2/18
Info GOOD READS from around the world 01 03 01 WOMAN OF THE ASHES Mozambique, 1895. A haunting love story against the backdrop of a colonial war, told in two alter- nating voices, their internal mono- logues skilfully interwoven. This is the story of a black woman and a Portuguese soldier, African spiritu- ality and Western pragmatism. By the end, both protagonists come to view the world in a different light. A literary tour de force. Thomas Wörtche, arts journalist Mia Couto, Mozambique Translated from Portuguese by David Brookshaw Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 272 pages 03 THE ASSOCIATION OF SMALL BOMBS A moment that shakes the world – and the small worlds within it: in his carefully crafted novel, Mahajan describes the ‘commu- 02 nity’ that is created when a bomb 04 explodes in Delhi, revealing how it affects victims and perpetra- tor. A novel about dogma, viewed through an almost sociological lens, which cleverly ﬁlls the gap left by news coverage of bomb- 04 LIFTING THE VEIL Ismat Chughtai was a quiet rebel, ings, large and small. bringing freshness and humour to Ulrich Noller, arts journalist 20th century Urdu literature. Her Karan Mahajan, India/USA Viking, 288 pages characters, most of them women, are quietly rebellious too, subtly challenging social conventions and traditional roles. These snapshots of life never fail to surprise and defy cliché. Claudia Kramatschek, literary critic and arts journalist Ismat Chughtai, India Translated from Urdu by M. Asaduddin Viking, 256 pages 02 SEEING RED Suddenly blind: Lina, a young Chilean, is at a party when the veins in her retinas burst. ‘Seeing Red’ is a story of how life can change in an instant. Lina has to ﬁnd new ways of navigating her life and its spaces, emotions and language. A compelling novel about inner life and the world LITPROM RECOMMENDS outside. Litprom – the Society for the Katharina Borchardt, literary critic Promotion of African, Asian and and editor Latin American literature – pro- vided these reviews for akzente. The titles were selected from Litprom’s list of the best new novels. www.litprom.de akzente 2/18 Lina Meruane, Chile Translated from Spanish by Megan McDowell Atlantic Books, 176 pages 49
Introducing From: Annette Mummert To: all akzente readers Greetings from a programme manager Today, 12:07 Hello from Dar es Salaam! When I began studying economics in Marburg, I had no plans to move abroad afterwards. But I should have known it would happen: my father’s job took us abroad and I spent the first six years of my life in other countries, including Kenya. And now I’m in Tanzania, where I have been managing a project since 2017. It assists the Government in collecting the taxes that are due. We focus mainly on the local level, as this is where most services are delivered to citizens – at the health centres, for example – so the municipalities need more financial scope. We are also working with our partners to improve financial control functions and ensure that revenues are utilised for their intended purpose. We work with internal auditors, the National Audit Office and civil society. Strengthening audit capacities and critical voices is not always popular, but I am pleased to say that our partners are highly committed to the project. I have been working for GIZ since 2014. In fact, while I was finishing my PhD, I began writing appraisals for GIZ, focusing on economic and employment policy and public finance. From 2014 until I moved to Tanzania, I was a public finance specialist in Eschborn. I feel at home in Tanzania, and my family like it here too, now that the turbulent first few months are behind us. My husband has taken a leave of absence from his professorship to look after the children. The two younger ones attend an interna- tional school. My eldest is still in Germany; she’s at university. We spend the weekends sailing, swimming and enjoying family time. I have an excellent team of 16 very dynamic local and international experts. This is my first job in a leadership role and I am really enjoying it. Creating something together as a team is very important to me. Kind regards, Annette Mummert GIZ is always looking for experts for its projects. Why not visit our ‘Jobs and careers’ page: www.giz.de/careers.
SUSTAINABILITY A look back at a project and its results Duhok Baghdad IRAQ Project: Temporary stabilisation of vulnerable households of refugees, IDPs and host community members in Northern Iraq / Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development / Term: April to December 2016 THEN NOW Large numbers of people have sought ref- uge in the autonomous region of Kurdistan in Northern Iraq since the outbreak of the war in Syria in 2011 and the advance of the so-called Islamic State terrorist organisa- tion. The Kurdish municipalities had to man- age the inﬂux of around one million displaced persons from Iraq and some 250,000 Syrian refugees. The Kurdistan Regional Govern- ment’s capacities were reaching their limits: caring for these people and meeting the very high demand for public services and infrastructure was an almost impossible task. As well as health care and education, sanitation and waste disposal capacities were massively overstretched. An economic crisis made matters worse, with refugees and displaced persons experiencing difﬁcul- ties ﬁnding work and local people facing job- lessness or owed unpaid wages. Women and children were particularly affected, as were people with disabilities and households with chronically sick family members. As there was no welfare system, the various communities were forced to compete for the few available jobs. This was a major poten- tial source of conﬂict. ) 0 5 E G A P ( X O V M A S , N O I S I V L A T I G I D / S E G A M I Y T T E G : S O T O H P Through Cash for Work in the Middle East, set up by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Inter- nationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH has helped partners to create 22,000 temporary jobs in Dohuk Province. Under the pro- gramme, implemented by GIZ on behalf of BMZ, refugees, displaced persons and local residents facing hardship are employed on cash-for-work schemes that benefit the local community, building and refurbishing schools, roads, water pipes and sewers. In 2016, the employment initiative, which was launched by BMZ in response to the crisis in Syria, provided work for 61,000 people in host countries around Syria; in 2017, the figure was 85,000. In Iraq, a follow-on project set up in 2017 extended the scheme beyond Dohuk Province to Erbil and Sulaymaniyah. The project will continue in 2018 with additional funding from BMZ. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/52865.html akzente 2/18 51 AKZENTE Publisher: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Registered offices: Bonn and Eschborn, Germany • Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 36 + 40, 53113 Bonn, Germany Tel.: +49 228 44 60-0, Fax: +49 228 44 60-17 66 • Dag-Hammarskjöld-Weg 1-5, 65760 Eschborn, Germany Tel.: +49 61 96 79-0, Fax: +49 61 96 79-11 15 Sabine Tonscheidt, Director of Corporate Communications Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: akzente.giz.de/en Responsible: Anja Tomic, Deputy Director of Corporate Communications (GIZ) Content concept and editing: GIZ: Uta Rasche (editor), Kerstin Nauth FAZIT Communication GmbH: Helen Sibum (project man- agement), Friederike Bauer, Judith Reker, Brigitte Spitz, Oliver Hick-Schulz (layout), Martin Gorka (infographics), Corinna Potthoff (photo editing) English translation: Hillary Crowe, Lynne Jagau, Jodie McGilvary, Mitzi Morgan; Gillian Lester (GIZ Language Services) Proofreading: textschrittmacher Graphic design/lithography: FAZIT Communication GmbH Printed by: Druckerei Lokay e. K., Reinheim, Germany Printed on: Arctic Volume, certified to FSC standards Maps: GIZ/Ira Olaleye The maps are for information purposes only and do not constitute recognition under international law of boundaries and territories. GIZ provides no assurance that these maps are up-to-date, correct or complete and accepts no responsibility for loss or damage arising directly or indirectly from their use. Cover and page 16: Getty Images/Sean Gallup All images: GIZ unless otherwise stated Copy deadline: May 2018 Published: Quarterly Current issue: June 2018 ISSN: 0945-4497 Articles by individual authors do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the publisher. akzente has received several awards for its high-quality journalism and design. In 2017, it won the FOX Award in Gold and the FOX Visual Award in Silver.
Responsibility [rɪˌspɒnsəˈbɪləti] is generally taken to mean the assignment of a duty to an actor or group of actors (subject) towards another person or group of persons (object) based on a normative claim that can be asserted via a designated body. Depending on social practice and values systems, actions and their impacts may have consequences for those responsible, ranging from praise and rewards to censure, punishment or claims for compensation. The relationship between the actors involved is linked to the result of the action. As a service provider with worldwide operations in the fields of interna- tional cooperation for sustainable development and international education, GIZ works with its partners to develop effective solutions that offer people better prospects and sustainably improve their living conditions. GIZ is a public-benefit federal enterprise and supports the German Government and a host of public and private sector clients in a wide variety of areas, including economic development and employment promotion, energy and the environment, and peace and security.