issue 2/17 akzente the giz magazine africa – a continent in transition other topics: vocational training on the west bank support for refugees in northern iraq
faces and stories my newspaper is a mouthpiece for the people. south african journalist and founder of the skawara news wandile fana his newspaper prints investigative articles in the local language, isixhosa – something that’s never been done before. on behalf of the german federal development ministry, giz supports local media that offer a critical commentary on political and administrative affairs in south africa. you can find more ‘faces and stories’ at www.giz.de/stories. scan the code with your smartphone to watch the video.
editorial no prejudices why we should be paying attention to africa. africa is a challenge. trying to cover this continent in one magazine is surely a venture doomed to fail. how can 54 coun- tries and their 1.1 billion people, their vast cultural riches and their multifaceted history find adequate expression in just a few pages? when we set about planning the main fea- ture of this issue, that was the question we faced. and yet we were bold enough to at- tempt it, because … africa is of concern to us. and that’s not just since it has swung back into our line of sight as displaced people seek to leave it. the continent of africa is, after all, our neighbour. it is the part of the world in which by far the greatest number of our staff are engaged in furthering development. as part of germany’s presidency of the g20, the german government is currently working on a number of initiatives to galvanise efforts there to improve people’s prospects. in close alliance with african and multinational de- velopment banks, the aim is to create more f avourable conditions for sustainable private investment and investment in infrastructure and jobs. there is particular emphasis on cooperating with those countries that are themselves taking steps to combat corruption and tax evasion. is this commitment just an- other drop in the ocean? most certainly not. our attention is not about to lapse. and rightly so, because … africa is full of surprises. observers who focus purely on war, disaster and disease risk overlooking the many small signals ema- nating from africa. for example, in 2017 nigeria is taking part in the biennale interna- tional art exhibition in venice for the first time. the singer and composer youssou n’dour from senegal makes regular appear- ances in europe and, as minister of culture, has made it one of his priorities to bring internet access to more of his country’s peo- ple. one thing seems clear: anyone who takes a closer look at africa needs to break free of their preconceptions. steering clear of ‘do-gooder’ and ‘romanticising’ tendencies is not easy. particularly when it came to choos- ing the cover picture, we realised how diffi- cult it is to convey the essence of this conti- nent without slipping into cliché. perhaps all of this will spark your interest in this magazine’s in focus section, in which we asked authors from africa and germany to share their views of the continent with us. among them is kandeh yumkella, who, after many years with the united nations, is now a candidate for the presidency of his home country of sierra leone. his message: ‘look at africa as an investment opportunity. see it as a potential market and not as a problem.’ ) 3 e g a p ( l e g o v a i r a m / n e f a r g o t o f f o h e i d , ) 2 e g a p ( k i w o l g a h c s a s : s o t o h p akzente 2/17 3 sabine tonscheidt, director of corporate communications email@example.com for a free subscription to akzente magazine, sim- ply send an email with your postal address to firstname.lastname@example.org, subject: subscribe.
contents in focus in brief 6 updates an expert team to combat epidemics, an advisory centre for mi- gra tion in tunisia, new commissions in colombia and south africa in the spotlight 10 golden rice nigeria still relies on imports for its staple food. rice farmer hajiya gambo auwalu wants to change things. 16 africa: a continent in transition in africa, huge potential and huge challenges go hand in hand. bettina rühl looks at the various paths of progress. 3 editorial 32 through the lens 50 special 52 info: events and publications 55 sustainability, preview issue 2/17 akzente the giz magazine africa – a continent in transition other topics: vocational training on the west bank support for refugees in northern iraq akzente app you can read akzente on your tablet whenever you want. simply download the app and the new issue for free from your app store. 25 ‘africa can capture the 21st century’ interview with kandeh yumkella, who has come home to support development in sierra leone after an international career 26 in figures: great opportunities and diversity facts and figures on the world’s second largest continent 29 feeding the fish writer jowhor ile shows how well-organised production is vital for nigeria. 30 a marshall plan with africa guest article by german development minister gerd müller background 34 our aim is continuous improvement ricardo gomez, director of giz’s evaluation unit, explains how giz ensures that it learns from its project work. 4 akzente 2/17
commitment authors and photographers 4 1 5 2 6 3 7 katrin gänsler (1) recounts her impressions of rice farmers’ lives in northern nigeria. prize-winning photographer george osodi (2) accompanied her there. bettina rühl (3) was recently awarded the prix europa for her work as a radio journalist. her article offers an analysis of africa – the continent she has been reporting on for many years. mohammad ponir hossain (4) took his striking photo in a textile factory in bangladesh. journalist uta rasche (5) is re- sponsible for akzente magazine at giz. she describes the situation of young palestinians on the labour market. gabriele rzepka (6) spoke to people in northern iraq who are building up new livelihoods in refugee camps. mustafa najafizada (7) photographed students and lecturers at a university faculty in afghanistan that is playing a pioneering role in training mining experts. at a glance the deutsche gesellschaft für internationale zusammenarbeit (giz) gmbh offers sustainable and effective solutions for political, economic and social change processes. giz is a federal enterprise that employs more than 17,000 staff members and operates in over 130 countries worldwide. www.giz.de/en ) m o t t o b , 5 e g a p ( a w t i l a i r a m , ) p o t , 5 e g a p ( o m i s a m o h t , ) t h g i r p o t , 4 e g a p ( s k c a s d i v a d / b u s e n o t s / s e g a m i y t t e g , ) t f e l p o t , 4 e g a p ( i d o s o e g r o e g : s o t o h p 36 self-employed rather than unemployed on the west bank, where jobs are scarce, vocational schools are improving young adults’ prospects on the labour market. 42 working towards a dream of happiness in some places in northern iraq refugees outnumber the indig- enous population. ‘cash for work’ schemes are helping both. 46 riches below ground afghanistan’s mineral wealth could solve the country’s economic problems. tomorrow’s experts are now being trained in kabul. introducing 54 marius kaiser his job as a climate finance expert is to ensure that ambitious climate change mitigation projects receive the funding they need. akzente 2/17 5
in figures 95% of the global population now has the op- portunity to use a mobile phone, even if the mobile network in many regions is based on a simple standard. that’s the good news from the international telecommunication union’s 2016 annual report. the bad news is that more than half of all people still have no internet access. 3,000,000 more people than in 2016 will be living in poverty by the end of 2017 despite being in work, according to the international labour organization. while numbers are falling in emerging economies, they are rising in de- veloping countries. in southern asia, almost half of the working population lives on less than usd 3.10 a day. 5.6 million hectares of forest are lost every year as a result of deforestation. this is equivalent to an area roughly the size of costa rica. forests are not only an important factor in the fight against climate change, they also gener- ate crucial income for the 350 million people who live in or near forests. in brief preventing epidemics rapid response team drawing on lessons learned from the devastating ebola outbreak in guinea, liberia and sierra leone in 2014, the german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development has commissioned giz with establishing a rapid response epidemic preparedness team. the task is to provide support to partner countries, for ex- ample in developing diagnostics for haemorrhagic fevers like ebola that cause bleeding. pathogens must be identified as quickly as possible to prevent the spread of disease. this approach is clearly working, as shown by the most recent outbreak of lassa fever in togo. there, in its first deployment in may 2016, the epidemic preparedness team de- veloped the diagnostics for lassa fever, trained laboratory staff and called for the nation- wide training of staff on how to take blood samples. as a direct result of this, the national hygiene institute in lomé was able to confirm a case of lassa fever within one day in march 2017, which led to the immediate implementation of measures to prevent the spread of the disease. before the team was deployed, samples had to be sent to neigh- bouring countries or to germany. when cases of lassa fever were reported in benin in march 2017, the epidemic pre- paredness team was also sent there, where it supported the national reference laboratory for febrile illnesses. at the request of the ministry of health in benin, the team also de- veloped methods of detecting other febrile diseases such as dengue fever and zika virus. severe cases of dengue fever were reported in benin at the end of 2016. the deployment teams consist of staff from giz and its cooperation partners, the robert koch institute and the bernhard nocht institute for tropical medicine. giz has estab- lished a pool of more than 60 experts specialised in areas such as health, tropical medi- cine and logistics. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/40435.html 6 6 akzente 2/17 akzente 2/17
the richness, welfare and prosperity of countries depend on the full integration of women in the development process. antónio guterres, united nations secretary-general, on the occasion of international women’s day on 8 march 2017 providing support and com munities that are hosting refugees. over eur 70 million from the eu’s madad fund is being used in these four countries to expand schools, build play- grounds sports grounds, and provide community-based lan- guage and computer courses as well as legal advice and medical and psychosocial support. because conditions on the labour market are also difficult, giz is organising vocational training. at a confer- ence in ankara in may, representatives from 100 turkish com- munities and eu partner towns dis- cussed their experiences of integration. in workshops in jordan, northern iraq and lebanon, young managers are seeking solutions, the aim being to pre- pare them for the tasks they will face when they return to syria. www.giz.de/displacement ) p o t , 7 e g a p ( t n o m u a e b t o i l l e : n o i t a r t s u l l i , ) r e t n e c , 7 e g a p ( t o h s o t o h p / e c n a i l l a e r u t c i p : o t o h p refugees in the biggest refugee crisis since the second world war, the civil war in syria has forced 13.5 million people to leave their homes. around five million have sought refuge in the neighbouring countries of iraq, jordan, lebanon and turkey. on behalf of the german federal ministry for eco nomic cooperation and develop- ment and the eu, giz is supporting akzente 2/17 7 three questions for aicha touijer fashion designer in medenine, tunisia. she took the first step towards self-employment in 2015 thanks to a competition organised by giz on behalf of the german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development. what experience did you have in the fashion industry before you started your own company? i completed a one-year training course as a seam- stress. not satisfied with that, i went on to work in a clothing factory to gain experience. but my dream was to have my own workshop. how did you come to start your own company? i took part in the ‘startup tunisia’ competition and came second. the prize enabled me to buy a high- quality embroidery machine and obtain professional advice. what was giz’s role in all of this? it supported the competition and appointed an ex- pert to help me. this allowed me to structure my ideas. for example, i decided to convert my home instead of renting an expensive workshop. i now have two employees, and three more work for me from home. the expert also gave me tips on mar- keting. i now advertise my collection on my face- book page and, thanks to my new machine, can accept orders from other sewing factories.
in brief 94* 94* giving refuge internal displacement in north-eastern nigeria, the violence inflicted by the terror group boko haram has claimed more than 17,000 lives since 2009. over two million people have been forced to flee. the german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development and the eu have tasked giz with supporting internally displaced persons (idps) and strengthening host com- munities. giz has a budget of around eur 55 million over five years to support both host communities and communities of origin. contact: hannes hechler email@example.com where children are dying in comparison child mortality is a key indicator of how a country is doing. some pro- gress has been made – the number of deaths worldwide almost halved between 1990 and 2015. however, the three examples show that there are still major differences between individual coun- tries. * number of children who die in their first month of life (in thou- sands, per year) 1* germany (80 million inhabitants) dr congo (80 million inhabitants) afghanistan (33 million inhabitants) prospects for tunisia advisory centre federal chancellor angela merkel visited egypt and tuni- sia in march. she discussed a number of issues with the tunisian govern- ment, including how germany can continue to support the country’s posi- tive development. an additional eur 250 million in development assistance will be provided. the german federal minister for economic cooperation and development, gerd müller, joined merkel on her trip to tunis, where he and the tunisian minister of employ- ment, imed hammami, opened an advi- sory centre. the german- tunisian cen- tre for jobs, migration and reintegra- tion serves as a point of contact for tunisians who wish to find out more about training opportunities at home or official means of migrating to germany. the centre also advises people returning from europe on employment opportu- nities as well as on starting up a busi- ness. this year alone, experts from giz and the tunisian employment agency will advise 2,000 people. in the picture, from left to right: oula tarssim and andreas proksch (giz), angela merkel, gerd müller. 5 1 0 2 o h w : e c r u o s 8 akzente 2/17
pensions for public servants public service retiring with regular pension payments is something very few people in the democratic republic of the congo are currently able to do. the private pension insurance scheme established in 1961 collects contributions, but rarely pays out. pub- lic service employees currently have no pension insurance, which means that many continue to turn up for work after their 55th birthday, when they should actually retire. their income is then funded in part by the fees they collect. the world bank has com- missioned giz to set up a pension fund and is financing its technical introduction. the pensions will be paid by the state. payments will probably begin by the end of 2017. giz international services has provided training for pension fund staff and created or- ganisational structures and it systems. contact: kathrin nutt > firstname.lastname@example.org new projects dr congo wiki official languages french, lingala, swahili, kikongo, tshiluba / capital kinshasa / form of government presidential republic / head of state president joseph kabila kabange / head of government prime minister bruno tshibala nzenze / size 2,345,410 km2 / population 70 million / population density 35 inhabitants per km2  / gross domestic product per capita usd 410  / currency congolese franc sources:  un data 2016  world bank 2015 rights for consumers peace for colombia news for kids china/brazil/germany the german federal ministry of justice and consumer protection has tasked giz with strength- ening consumer rights in these three countries. at symposiums, policy-makers and experts will discuss ways to enforce consumer rights. for example, although complaints procedures exist in all three countries, they are rarely used. the pro- ject also supports consumer protection associations’ efforts to make citizens more aware of their rights. colombia at the end of 2016, the co- lombian government signed an historic peace agreement with the country’s big- gest rebel group. to ensure lasting peace, giz is supporting state and civil society institutions in colombia. on behalf of the german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development and the eu, its activities include advising municipali- ties and organising training and other support measures for facilitators who promote peaceful conflict resolution. south africa ‘my name is banana’ is just one of the headlines in a new english-lan- guage newspaper for children. published by the german press agency (dpa) with sup- port from giz, news for kids is aimed at schoolchildren with english as a foreign language. south africa has 11 official lan- guages, but a good grasp of english is essential to improve career prospects. fol- lowing the pilot phase in the township of soweto, the newspaper is to be published in further regions. www.developpp.de/en akzente 2/17 9 ) t h g i r , 9 e g a p ( y r a t n e m u c o d s i b r o c / s e g a m i y t t e g , ) r e t n e c , 9 e g a p ( s e g a m i t e n a l p y l e n o l / s e g a m i y t t e g , ) t f e l , 9 e g a p ( e t y b k c o t s / s e g a m i y t t e g : s o t o h p
golden rice nigeria still relies on imports to supply the population with rice, its staple food. now, women farmers like hajiya gambo auwalu plan to use their expertise in growing and processing rice to boost yields. text katrin gänsler photos george osodi
in the spotlight " we know more about rice now, so we can achieve more. " sifts the processed grains through her fin- gers. ‘the quality is much higher now,’ she says, nodding approvingly. she learned about the parboiling meth- od on a training course organised by a non- governmental organisation in nigeria, one of 11 local partners involved in the compet- itive african rice initiative (cari). the ini- tiative currently cooperates with more than 90,000 rice growers and processors in burki- na faso, ghana, nigeria and tanzania and aims to increase that number to around 150,000 by mid-2018. cari is financed by the bill & melinda gates foundation, the wal¬mart foundation and germany’s fed- eral ministry for economic cooperation and development. the community centre in dawakin kudu doesn’t just process rice, though. haji- ya gambo has to shout to make herself heard over a deafening noise from one of the open rooms: ‘we also grind peanuts here to produce oil. and over there is the soap that we make.’ the next day, hajiya gambo wants to show us where her own rice grows. it’s still cool in the early morning, and the sun is hidden in hazy cloud. hajiya gambo kneels down in the middle of the field: ‘we’ll be planting rice again here soon,’ she explains. for now, though, she and eight other wom- en need to check their tomato plants, re- moving wilted leaves and carefully piling up the ripe tomatoes in their aprons. these nine women, who live in garun mallam, have formed a cooperative and have been work- ing together since 2016 to farm the 10-hec- tare site. they pay an annual rent of 50,000 naira (around eur 150) for the land, which the cooperative can afford out of what it earns. hajiya gambo and her col- leagues work in silence, concentrating. just once, she looks up and blinks. the training course has taught her how important crop rotation is and why she should grow differ- » ent crops on the same plot throughout h ajiya gambo auwalu screws up her eyes. this gaunt woman is engulfed in the steam coming from a large rice cooker. her eyes are wa- tering and her forehead is beaded with perspiration, but the 55-year-old doesn’t mop her brow or complain about the heat. and when she emerges from the cloud of steam, she smiles and points to the grey-brown cooker. it pro- duces the high-quality rice of which she and 5,000 other farmers from the nigerian state of kano are so proud. the local women have named their product ‘tauraruwa’, which means ‘star‘. she beams: the name is perfect, she thinks. there’s even a golden star print- ed on the packaging. along with more than 100 other wom- en, hajiya gambo has come this morning to the meeting centre in dawakin kudu, a town on the outskirts of the economic hub of kano in northern nigeria. the women are discussing what they have learned about rice processing over the past few months, es- pecially the parboiling process. this involves soaking the rice several times, then steaming it, drying it and finally milling it. the pro- cess drives the vitamins and nutrients in the bran into the rice kernel, and this makes the rice more nutritious than the conventionally processed white varieties that the area has traditionally produced. it also changes the colour of the rice to a golden yellow. con- ventional white rice is filling but does not contain sufficient vitamins and minerals. the un children’s fund unicef esti- mates that in 2015, at least 1.7 million in- fants in nigeria were affected by severe mal- nutrition. that number has increased as a result of boko haram terrorism in the north-east of the country. hajiya gambo explains how the rice is treated to retain as many nutrients as possi- ble. she rapidly describes a process that ac- tually takes several hours, and at the end akzente 2/17 11
left: the women farmers of dawakin kudu in northern nigeria benefit from courses run by the women farmers advancement network. right: rice piled high at project partner popular farms and mills. at a glance more rice, more income the aim of the competitive african rice in- itiative (cari) is to make african countries less dependent on imported rice. it also supports farmers with low incomes, many of whom are women. cari receives assis- tance from the german federal ministry for economic cooperation and develop- ment, the bill & melinda gates foundation, the walmart foundation, private companies and local non-governmental organisations. it works with 11 partners in nigeria. the initiative is also active in burkina fa- so, ghana and tanzania. its objective is to reach around 150,000 rice growers by mid-2018. participating farmers in northern nigeria have seen their incomes rise by some 170 per cent within three years. the year: ‘it’s good for the soil,’ she says. be- fore long, she’s finished checking her rows. putting her hands on her hips, she straight- ens up slowly and then gestures expansively: ‘and it means we can now produce two rice crops and two tomato crops a year.’ the aim is to increase the rice yield from two tonnes per hectare to between five and six tonnes. that’s also what hajiya gambo is hoping for, and the women farmers advancement network now gives her access to affordable fertilisers to help her achieve her goal. her own field is 2.4 hec- tares in size, and in 2016, she harvested ex- actly 32 sacks of rice. although each sack weighed 100 kg, it wasn’t enough, and she doesn’t like to think back to that harvest. wiping her hands, she frowns: ‘i wasn’t sat- isfied with the quantity,’ she says. she was able to sell just 20 sacks, as she needed the rest of the rice to feed her own family. the 55-year-old lives with her six children, who range in age from 17 to 40. once their spouses and children are included, that’s a household of 25. gambo also supports her grandchil- dren, which is not easy, as she points out: ‘as well as feeding them, i need money to clothe them and pay their school fees.’ in northern nigeria, school attendance is still not seen as the accepted norm, with girls particularly likely to be excluded from edu- cation. in fact, the current unicef report indicates that across the country, 8.7 mil- lion children of primary school age do not go to school. instead, both girls and boys are often needed to work in the household or in the fields. but hajiya gambo thinks it’s im- portant for her grandchildren to be educat- ed, and the money she earns from growing rice and vegetables pays their school fees. in the past, she has despaired at poor harvests like the one in 2016. now she taps the ground with her right index finger: ‘we know more now, so we can achieve more.’ rice is her priority, because she can earn well from growing and selling it. it is a popular staple food as it takes less time to prepare than the traditional tubers – yams and manioc. and it’s convenient, especially since increasing numbers of nigerian wom- en now work outside the home. the de- mand for rice is rising steadily, in part because the population is growing by 12 akzente 2/17
in the spotlight 2.4 per cent a year: nigeria currently has a population of 186 million. the cost of a 50 kg sack of rice is more than 20,000 naira (around eur 60) and has doubled over re- cent years. as africa’s most populous state, nigeria has traditionally been reliant on imports of rice from asia. in 2016, president muham- madu buhari made several speeches stress- ing that the country needed to break this dependency on imports. however, it re- mains unclear when – or, indeed, if – this will happen. it would require a massive in- crease in rice production, though that could also stimulate the economy: in 2016, nige- ria experienced its severest recession for 20 years, with inflation exceeding 18 per cent for months on end. one reason is that nige- ria, the world’s sixth largest oil producer, has relied for decades on high oil prices. politi- cians are now increasingly turning their at- tention back to agriculture. hajiya gambo glances at the field one last time to check that all is well. for today, her work is done here, and she sets off back across town. she crosses the road and stops by a sign bearing the letters ‘ofsp’. she laughs: ‘that’s something we’ve only just discovered.’ ofsp stands for ‘orange fleshed sweet potato‘, and the sign marks one of the first fields to be planted with a variety » of sweet potato that until recently was also available on the akzente app: video impressions of rice-growing akzente.giz.de/en
top: large rice mills also cooperate with cari to increase the supply of high-quality rice for processing and packaging. bottom: hajiya gambo auwalu (right) uses her earnings from growing and processing rice to feed her family and pay her grandchildren’s school fees. 14 » akzente 2/17
the farmers are learning how important crop rotation is to healthy crops. they now grow not only rice but also a range of vegetables, including sweet potatoes (pictured). virtually unknown in northern nigeria. ehealth africa, one of giz’s partners, wants to get more people eating these sweet pota- toes. they are popular across the region, but hajiya gambo has had to get used to the bright orange colour. now, though, she says she loves them. the advantage of this particular variety of sweet potato is its very high vitamin a content; around one in three nigerians have a vitamin a defi- ciency. before she returns home, she wants to drop into her cooperative’s community cen- tre in garun mallam to check that all is well. every day, some of the women respon- sible for processing the rice meet there. today, however, there is no rice to steam or dry. instead, they are tidying up the small centre, which doesn’t take long. ‘i hope we can expand one day,’ says hajiya gambo, showing us though the open rooms. in one corner sits a half-full sack, waiting for purchasers. the large rice cooker is stowed tidily in another corner. a few women are sitting on benches, chatting. the centre is an important meeting point, and the women are talking about yields – an key topic, since they all depend on agriculture for their living. the proces sed rice contains a higher level of vitamins and nutrien ts. on the outskirts of kano, the rice process- ing that the women carry out on a small scale in their centres is performed by enor- mous machines. cari also works with larger-scale project partners, such as the popular farms and mills company, which operates one of the largest rice mills in nigeria. large companies of this kind are essential to meeting the country’s demand for rice. commercial director rajeev singh believes this cooperation with cari is im- mensely important: ‘it enables us to obtain more high-quality rice for processing.’ the company is now training around 20,000 farmers, who will become suppliers. and, says singh, ‘since we started working to- gether last year, we’ve been getting much less broken rice.’ in garun mallam, hajiya gambo is now on her way home to prepare her fami- ly’s meal. she’s long since decided what she is going to cook today: rice with vegetable sauce. ‘our own rice, of course,’ she says, laughing – the rice with the golden star. > contact stefan kachelriess-matthess email@example.com akzente 2/17 15
africa themes a continent in transition: africa has many faces – and many opportunities, if it focuses on utilising its potential and curbs corruption. overview: examples of giz’s work in africa ‘africa can lead in the 21st century‘: interview with kandeh yumkella, who after many years with the un has now returned to political life in sierra leone in figures: great opportunities and diversity feeding the fish: writer jowhor ile on nigeria’s future a marshall plan with africa: guest article by development minister gerd müller
in focus a continent in transition africa is the continent of opportunity – economic, political and cultural. but how can it make the most of its potential? the answers lie in education, anti-corruption and economic diversification. text bettina rühl amidst the rubble stands a new building with a gleaming white façade, its entrance pillars glint- ing metallic in the sunshine. two armed guards and a barrier on the road into the city centre are meant to protect this newly constructed mall in mogadishu. after more than a quarter century of war, much of the city’s historic quarter lies in ruins. with its name embla- zoned on a huge scarlet sign on the portico, the moga- dishu mall stands out for miles. ‘the investors took a very courageous step in financ- ing a mall like this here in mogadishu,’ says abdourah- man nour, the 32-year-old somali property developer who built the shopping centre. in somalia, peace is still a long way off. with the islamist armed group al- shabaab conducting an ongoing campaign against the government and anything else they regard as un-islamic, there is a very real risk that the mall will be the target of dynamic africa: the continent’s many young people can drive development forward – provided that they have access to training and jobs. ) 8 1 e g a p ( t l e f d e v s u a l k / n o i s i v l a t i g i d / s e g a m i y t t e g , ) 7 1 / 6 1 e g a p ( s k c a s d i v a d / b u s e n o t s / s e g a m i y t t e g : s o t o h p bomb attacks by insurgents. one of their favourite tactics is to load up vehicles with explosives and then detonate them in public spaces. these attacks have dev- astating consequences, often leaving countless people dead or injured. but this does not deter the hundreds or even thousands of somalis who are returning to their home country from all over the world. in the streets of mogadishu, english is spoken in a multitude of accents. the returnees are the driving force behind countless investment projects and are also present in all areas of political life, bringing hope to this war-torn country. most of the returnees have skills to offer, gained while they were refugees in europe or other developed regions. somali businessman and property developer abdourahman nour is a case in point: he spent 13 years in exile, studying economics in malaysia, living in dubai and kenya, always on the run from the war in his home country. he came back to mogadishu in autumn 2011. ‘i couldn’t stay away any longer,’ he says. ‘if we don’t rebuild our country, no one else will do it for us.’ tall and slim, nour radiates warmth and energy. his com- pany, target group limited, has around 50 permanent » staff and also employs a large number of casual work- akzente 2/17 19
in focus ‘i dream of an africa which is in peace with itself.’ nelson mandela, freedom fighter and statesman (1918–2013) the app searches for possible causes. once the correct medication has been selected, the app shows where it is currently in stock, together with the price. ‘this means that patients or their relatives don’t have to drive around trying to find a supplier,’ lantum explains. this saves time and money – and may even save lives. in addition to the booming it sector in kenya, rwanda and other countries, major progress is being made in the analogue economy. some governments have chosen to prioritise new infrastructure: kenya, for example, has its vision 2030 programme, which in- cludes a number of ambitious projects at an estimated total cost of around usd 24.5 billion, including a new port, an airport, a railway line, roads and an oil pipeline. the kenyans are keen to encourage ethiopia, south sudan and uganda to take a stake in the construction of a railway line and the pipeline. however, the project is currently embroiled in political disputes and faces major funding gaps, so it is coming in for growing criticism. other projects are further ahead – and some are achieving notable successes. kenya’s geothermal energy sector is one example. currently, only one kenyan in three has access to the electricity grid. power outages are the norm – to such an extent that the national utility company kenya power has no qualms about posting the planned ‘power interruptions’ on its website. keen to stabilise the electricity supply, kenya is boosting invest- ment in geothermal energy, a well-established sector here, which utilises heat from beneath the earth’s surface to power high-temperature steam turbines to generate electricity. kenya is a world leader in the use of this clean green energy and is steadily expanding its capacities, aiming for a threefold increase by 2020. this will help to power the economy. ethiopia also plans to boost its investment in » geothermal energy in future. although still one of ers, depending on orders. ‘we build houses – we supply everything but the furnishings,’ he explains. ’we also act as agents for foreign companies; for example, we are act- ing for a turkish firm that sells generators and a spanish distributor of solar panels.’ in somalia, anyone who earns a wage feeds two or three families, which means that nour’s permanent employees are supporting around 600 people between them. and there are many more like him in somalia. in countries like ghana, nigeria, kenya and rwan- da, which are further ahead in their development progress, the returnees are integrating into societies in the grip of a technological revolution. and far from replicating western ideas, they are developing their own solutions. kenya’s information technology and mobile communications sector offers countless examples – no wonder the capital nairobi is dubbed ‘silicon savannah’. a new brand of businessperson – educated and cosmopolitan one of the local tech factories is microclinic tech- nologies limited, run by moka lantum. a doctor and entrepreneur, he was born in cameroon in western central africa but spent almost two decades in the united states and acquired us citizenship. somewhere along the way, he decided to go back to africa in order to improve local health care using mobile and digital technology. lantum is the epitome of the modern afri- can entrepreneur: well-educated, cosmopolitan, profit- oriented but with a strong sense of social responsibility. he would have made his mark anywhere in the world, but he opted for africa – the continent, as he sees it, which offers the best opportunities for him to maximise his impact. lantum and his company have now developed two apps to support affordable access to health care and good-quality pharmaceuticals. the first – zidi – is designed for hospitals and health centres; the second is for patients and consumers. zidi is a diagnostic tool for health workers: they simply input the symptoms and tradition meets the modern world: fishing boats against the skyline of dar es salaam in tanzania. ) 0 2 e g a p ( f r s t c e j b u s : x i m n o i t c e l l o c / s e g a m i y t t e g : o t o h p akzente 2/17 21 54 is the total number of countries in africa. latin america has 33, including the caribbean island states. africa has an area of 30 million km2, while latin america’s is around 19 million km2.
in focus examples of giz’s work giz’s work in africa – as multifaceted and diverse as the continent’s 54 countries giz implements projects and pro- grammes in almost every afri- can country. in 2016, it had 4,700 staff working on commissions with a total value of eur 936 million. one of its key tasks on behalf of the german govern- ment is to promote sustainable economic development and offer people better pros- pects. this is being achieved, for example, through projects which train young people in occupations that offer good employment opportunities. training is also provided to enable farmers to improve their cultivation techniques; this helps to combat hunger and undernourishment. adaptation to cli- mate change, for example through the con- struction of irrigation systems, is another priority area of activity, as is health system development: in the five years from 2010 to 2015, 12 million africans gained access to health insurance. high population growth remains a major challenge, not least for africa’s education systems, but with giz’s support, almost eight million children and teenagers gained access to improved edu- cation from 2010 to 2015. the purpose of all these activities is ‘to make africa a better place’. with that aim in mind, giz partners not only with na- tional governments but also with local and international companies. however, sustain- able economic development depends upon an enabling legal and political environment, so in almost all its african partner coun- tries, giz is implementing good governance projects. there is strong evidence that le- gal certainty also improves the investment climate. and from 2010 to 2015, around 23.6 million africans gained more opportu- nities to have a say in politics. in many african countries, access to electricity is still the exception rather than the norm due to the lack of power plants and transmission lines. in kenya, for exam- ple – home to 46 million people – only one household in three has access to power from the grid, and the figure is even lower in rural areas. so on behalf of the german and british governments, giz is working with kfw to support the installation of so- lar hybrid systems to provide electricity for rural communities. diesel generators are available for the few days without sunshine. the solar panels generate enough power to charge mobile phones and run sewing machines, fridges and lighting. similar schemes are promoting access to electricity in many other african countries as well. the aim is to give 19 million households access to clean energy by 2019. education in ethiopia 150,000 students are studying at 13 new universi- ties whose construction was organised by giz international services on behalf of the ethiopian ministry of education. stu- dent hostels and water treatment plants were also built. the buildings were de- signed and constructed by local compa- nies, now familiar with current standards. migration in the horn of africa 9,000,000 people in the horn of africa are fleeing conflict. on behalf of the eu and bmz, giz is working to protect them from human trafficking and violence. very few of them have europe in their sights – they want to build a future for themselves close to home. improving farming in 14 countries 10,000,000 people are benefiting from giz’s coopera- tion with 100 partner organisations to improve the cultivation of cacao, cashew nuts, cotton and rice in 14 african coun- tries. the bill & melinda gates foundation, the private sector and bmz are providing eur 235 million for these projects. an app against corruption in nigeria 2,225 incidents on nigeria’s streets have been reported since 2014 with an app pio- neered by giz. corrupt police officers detain street traders – often violently – in order to extort bribes. the app to combat these illegal checks was devel- oped on behalf of bmz. 22 akzente 2/17
fertile africa: higher productivity means higher yields. the picture shows a kenyan woman carrying spinach. the world’s poorest countries, it has been achieving double-digit growth rates over the past few years, out- performing almost every other country in the world. and according to its government, there is more to come: in the next two years, it plans to build an industrial site for drug and medtech companies in order to expand the domestic pharmaceuticals sector and attract foreign investment. this, the government hopes, will reduce ethiopia’s dependence on imports: the ministry of industry estimates that ethiopia currently imports as much as 85 per cent of its pharmaceutical and medical supplies. this new dawn in africa is not only evident in its large-scale projects. more and more africans are taking the plunge and investing in jobs, for example in the processing industry. one of them is adamas koudou (31), a young entrepreneur from togo. he speaks so quickly that his words seem to be struggling to keep pace with his ideas. ‘if you don’t try, you die,’ the young busi- nessman says. ‘we have to make something of ourselves – there’s no other choice.’ teabag in hand, koudou stands in the living room of a bungalow on the outskirts of togo’s capital lomé. the large space is empty apart from black plastic sheeting covering the floor. on it, seeds from the kinkeliba tree are spread out to dry. koudou has turned tables on their sides and set them up around the seeds, to protect them from being blown away by a gust of wind. it is a quirky arrangement, but the seeds are the heart of koudou’s company bio-afrique. with start-up capital of just eur 2,000 from a government scheme for young entrepre- neurs, he has been building his company since novem- ber 2013. the following february saw the market launch of his first kinkeliba teabag, made from the dried seeds. the tea is used primarily for medicinal purposes, to treat fever, liver disorders and the like. taking the initiative the tea has an earthy, slightly bitter flavour and is mainly sold in togo at present. koudou now has around » 25 staff working in production, management and ) 3 2 e g a p ( + e / s e g a m i y t t e g : o t o h p akzente 2/17 23
in focus ‘africa doesn’t need strongmen, it needs strong institutions.’ barack obama, former us president distribution. the idea of going into tea production came to him after he graduated in business administra- tion. he had been racking his brains to find a way of earning a living. having applied for countless jobs and received a pile of rejections, he realised that if he couldn’t find a job, he would have to create his own. and he has done so with single-minded commitment and determination. africa’s progress is abundantly obvious – although observers over-estimated the african economy’s upward trajectory for a time. business consultants and banks were keen to talk about ‘africa rising’, and the optimistic fore- casts were underpinned by genuinely impressive macroe- conomic data from many sub-saharan african countries from 2000 onwards. until 2015, the region’s gdp grew by an average of 5.3 per cent in real terms – higher growth than was achieved by the industrialised nations during the same period. but the collapse of the price of oil and other commodities on the world markets confirmed what many sceptics had been saying for some time – that the growth rates were driven mainly by raw materials exports and the high prices they were fetching at the time on the world markets. this trend has slackened now, although the international monetary fund (imf) is predicting a moderate recovery over the next few years. however, the countries that experienced the sharp- est rise in incomes are also those in which income inequality is most pronounced. even so, the overall situ- ation has improved even for the poorest of the poor in recent years: in 2000, almost two thirds of the african population lived below the poverty line, but this has now fallen to around 40 per cent. in education, too – a key sector in breaking the vicious cycle of poverty – africa has made substantial progress since 2000. although there is not a single country on the continent where every child attends primary school, the numbers have more than doubled, from around 60 million to almost 160 million – roughly 80 per cent. there’s also good news to report in second- ary education: according to unesco, no other region of the world has made progress equal to africa’s, albeit from a low level – even now, less than 50 per cent of children who attend a primary school go on to second- ary. it’s a similar picture with university education: here too, there is considerable ground to make up despite impressive progress over the past two decades. economic imbalances the generally positive trend in africa could easily be reversed, however; the african countries must continue to work hard to improve living conditions. one ongo- ing problem for many countries is the lack of eco- nomic diversification: alongside commodity exports, agriculture is the other mainstay of the economy, with almost two thirds of africans dependent on subsist- ence farming. yet despite the major importance of farming, many countries have cut their agricultural budgets in recent years, and international support has been steadily dwindling. this is the starting point for the comprehensive africa agriculture development programme (caapd), launched by the african union (au) and the new partnership for africa’s develop- ment (nepad) in 2003. caapd aims to boost investment in this sector and promote agricultural pol- icy coherence. its target is for the au member states to achieve at least 6 per cent annual growth in agricul- tural gdp. that is still a long way off, but at least there is growing awareness of the issue. this new approach and new investment in agricul- ture are supported by germany. the german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development (bmz) has set up green innovation centres in 13 part- ner countries to promote innovation in the agriculture and food sector and thus improve food security in the region. bmz is providing almost eur 140 million for this purpose to the end of 2019. in many places, progress in the economic sphere is accompanied by positive political developments. there was good news not long ago from the gambia, the con- tinent’s smallest country, in west africa: its people went to the polls and voted their dictatorial president yahya jammeh out of office. at first, jammeh clung on to » power, giving way only when intense pressure was 24 akzente 2/17 2,140 is the total number of languages in africa. cameroon alone has 230 languages. this linguistic wealth is an expression of great cultural diversity.
“africa can capture the 21st century” kandeh yumkella plans to run for president in sierra leone after having been abroad for 27 years. he has left a high-ranking position at the united nations in order to push for progress in his home country. yumkella thinks africa has great potential. many people see africa either as a lost continent or as the next frontier. why is the perception often so extreme? african development has had mixed results in the last 60 to70 years. we have seen periods in which countries have had serious crises particularly the 70s and 80s. that has left the impression that africa is about death, disease and disaster. how- ever, at the same time we have seen some of the fastest growing economies in africa during the past five or six years. so if people´s minds are stuck in former decades they see africa as a problem area. but others see africa as the next frontier. what is your personal view? i see africa as the next frontier. i am fully convinced that our region can capture the 21st century if we invest in human capacity building and skills development and if governments create enabling environments that attracts both domestic and foreign investment. don´t we see the opposite right now, a general negative trend? in other words: is your optimism not based on the situation five years back? i see some crises indeed. but at the same time i see countries that are really making efforts to emerge. ghana just had a successful election, and a dictator in the gambia left. countries like mauritania are using their oil wealth to transform their economy, to name a few. where do you see particular opportunities for africa? we have mineral wealth and incredible human resources. i also see agriculture ) 5 2 e g a p ( y l l a f d r a h r e g : o t o h p and agribusiness as a big opportunity, especially because we need to increase the global food production by 70 percent until 2050. africa has a lot of available land. we could feed most of the world. another huge potential is energy, both conventional and renewable and last but not least the digital revolution. could you give me some examples on the latter? kenya has established a digital hub. it´s called silicon savannah. they are devel- oping software and going global with it. nigeria is also in the process of estab- lishing its own it hub. africans are very keen to advance technically as the spread of mobile phones has demonstrated. they are ready to leapfrog. in ten years we will see a total different africa due to digitalization. what in your view needs to be done to irreversibly unlock that african potential? the african countries should learn not only to depend on natural resources. they must diversify their economies, es pecially in labour intensive manu facturing. that attracts investments and creates value addition. any other priority areas you see? well, four points for my country and most other african countries: first, fight corruption because it is probably the biggest obstacle for development. second, push health and education. ebola has shown us how fragile our health sector is. education is crucial to get the economy going. third, we need better infrastructure, particularly energy. and fourth, we have akzente 2/17 25 kandeh yumkella sees his place in his home country after having had an international career. to tackle youth unemployment with special programmes like vocational trainings. otherwise the youth will rebel – or leave for europe and make the refugee problem there bigger than it is today. how do you want to fight corruption? we have to be very persistent. but digitalization can help us here as well. we have to push for more e-governance. that way we can make governments more transparent, check for corruption and enlighten the people. what could europe do to support african countries in this period of transition? look at africa as an investment opportu- nity. see it as a potential market and not as a problem. interview: friederike bauer
great opportunities and diversity africa is not a uniform continent but rather a place of diversity. it comprises nearly five dozen countries and several thousand ethnicities. there are deserts, mountains, mighty rivers, fertile land, a wealth of natural resources, and an agile young population. it has modern cities and a growing middle class, but also vast rural areas and high levels of poverty. some countries are developing into democracies, while in others, democracies are falling apart. but although many may think it, africa is not a monotonous region that will never succeed. the infographic shows opportunities and challenges. young population worldwide, the 15 countries with the youngest populations are all found in africa. the average age in africa is 18 years. africa germany 18 years 44.5 years abundant catch the waters of southwest africa and west africa are among the world’s richest in fish. economic prospects africa has great potential in the commercial, service and agricultural sectors. althouth currently its share of global gdp is only 3.1 per cent, economic institutes forecast that africa’s economies could take a great leap forward in the next two decades if the political environment is right and the level of education rises. the continent’s economic output has been growing much faster in the past 15 years than in europe and latin america. africa 5.4% 3.3% latin america 3.3% 2.3% europe 1.4% 1.0% 2000-2010 2010-2015 many refugees about 20 million refugees and internally dis- placed persons, or nearly a third (29 per cent) of the worldwide total, live in sub-saharan africa. europe however, with its much greater economic strength, is home to only six per cent. higher yields africa is home to 60 per cent of the remaining useable agricultural land worldwide. africa rest of world increasing production africa could nearly double its turnover in the manufacturing sector by 2025 to 930 billion us dollars if countries are able to create a favourable investment climate, to build the required infrastruc- ture, and have qualified workers. billion 930 us dollars 500 billion us dollars
many freedom fighters the nobel peace prize has already been award- ed to an african eleven times, including nelson mandela, kofi annan and ellen johnson sirleaf. clean energy africa’s demand for energy is much smaller than its potential to generate renewable energy. for hydropower, only 10 per cent of its potential has been tapped. the solar energy over the sahara is so strong that it could theoretically supply the whole world with electricity using the right technologies and connections. harmful corruption 15 of the 24 countries with the most strongly perceived corruption in the public sector are in africa. great diversity africa has a wealth of biodiversity. it is home to a fourth of all mammals, including 79 antilope species. in focus applied by the presidents of neighbouring countries. after fierce wrangling, he finally went into exile in january 2017. the fact that african presidents forced one of their own to relinquish power is a sign of change in the continent’s political climate. in countries which are members of the economic community of west af- rican states (ecowas) – guinea, niger, senegal, mali, guinea-bissau, nigeria and most recently benin – changes of government have proceeded peacefully and democratically since 2010. another notable development is the emergence of youth organisations and grassroots protest movements as a political force. in the democratic republic of the congo, for example, the lucha youth coalition – the name stands for ‘lutte pour le changement’, or struggle for change – played a major role in the protests against a third term for president joseph kabila. lucha’s found- ers explain their engagement in terms of the highly precarious situation facing the country’s young people, with youth unemployment at around 90 per cent. instead of joining one of the many armed groups in eastern congo or the outflow of migrants to europe, they want to transform their country with peaceful protest – in other words, by political means. ensuring that the constitution is upheld and that president kabila lays down the reins of government on schedule are among their key demands. a tough line towards critics at the same time, political repression is increasing in many countries, including ethiopia, burundi and uganda, with governments taking an increasingly tough line towards critics and the press. this applies particu- larly to ethiopia, which is developing rapidly, albeit with a high level of social inequality. however, this development progress comes at a cost: an authoritarian government and major political unrest. despite a massive drought in 2016, ethiopia is the region’s driver of growth and is a close ally of the west in the fight against terror. but in autumn 2016, hundreds of people died in protests and the government declared a state of emergency; the country’s stability is under threat. the same applies to mali, albeit for very different reasons. here, islamist terrorism and large-scale drug trafficking threaten the cohesion of the state, and an un mission involving the german bundeswehr has made little headway against them. the situation is equally wor- rying in neighbouring countries: terror groups and traf- fickers, after all, are no respecters of national borders. » unusually for swedish author henning mankell, this is not a work of fic- tion. here, mankell deals sensitively and knowledge- ably with the subject of aids and gives people living with the disease a voice. mankell, who died in 2015, knew africa well and had a home in mozambique. sources: africa progress panel, federal agency for civic education, mckinsey, international monetary fund, unhcr, public radio international, unep, irena, transparency international 27
africa resists: the people of the gambia voted their longstanding president yahya jammeh out of office and into exile. overall, then, how is africa doing today? there is no clear-cut answer to that question. many countries are at a crossroads. the foundations – mainly economic but in part political – are in place for a transition to sustainable development, but this trend is by no means irreversible. as the growth rates show, falling world market prices have dampened down economic devel- opment in many countries. however, well-crafted economic policies would prevent any reversal of the successes achieved to date. the proposed marshall plan with africa, which german development minister gerd müller is keen to launch in the g7 framework, would support and consolidate the continent’s positive development trajectory. in essence, this initiative is about economic cooperation, with a stronger focus on african country ownership and a shift away from the traditional donor- recipient mentality. the aim is to create a more enabling environment for private investment from developed countries, based on the recognition that in the long term, jobs are created by the private sector, not govern- ments. what’s more, countries which take action against corruption, establish tax systems and invest in better ed- ucation will receive more support than the rest. this is important, not least because economic inequalities on the continent are widening, both within and between countries. so it is essential to focus on and make targeted use of the opportunities that africa affords. africa offers major potential. indeed, a few years ago, former un secretary-general kofi annan described africa as a ‘sleeping giant about to be awoken’. ensuring that it does not fall back into an economic and political coma – that’s the task ahead, and tackling it lies first and foremost in the hands of the african countries themselves. www.giz.de/africa tom burgis, investiga- tions correspondent at the finan cial times, explores the question of why there is so much poverty on a continent as wealthy as africa. in search of an- swers, he travelled across africa, collecting informa- tion and impressions. 28 akzente 2/17
in focus feeding the fish guest article by jowhor ile a night out in port harcourt often be- gins with a mini-feast of grilled fish– steaming hot, deliciously spicy, and wrapped in aluminium foil. besides the city’s worthless reputation as the oil capital of nigeria, port harcourt remains – at least to my mind – the seafood capital of the country; the water of the river niger splits into its delta as it heads for the atlantic ocean. there is hardly a dish served here without some fish, periwinkles, crabs, shrimps, clams, or water snails. there are people who take seriously the difference in taste between the fresh-water catfish and the salt-water variety; people who shudder when served fish reared in farms, although the rivers are polluted from oil exploration, the fish in them poisoned, their population drastically dwindled. last august i went to an outdoor spot with three friends. we sat in the warm night, relishing the fish, taking in the occa- sional breeze. we dipped into the large plat- ter of catfish, which had been marinated in a spicy sauce and slow-cooked in an open fire. i had an idea to order a second one, then thought to ask the price. the price had doubled since the last time. ‘for ordinary fish?’ my friend, adi, complained to the uninterested waitress. ) 9 2 e g a p ( t n o m u a e b t o i l l e : n o i t a r t s u l l i , ) 8 2 e g a p ( u l o d a n a / s e g a m i y t t e g : o t o h p profile jowhor ile is a nigerian author whose first novel ‘and after many days’ was published in 2016 to great acclaim. his writings about daily life in africa are both poetic and political. we knew too well that although catfish was farmed locally, key ingredients for making the fish feed were sourced abroad. the fall in oil price and the subsequent drop in the value of the naira meant foreign exchange transactions disadvantaged the farmers; some were shut out of business. ‘but why can’t we produce fish feed pre- mix?’ sodi asked, and in exasperation ordered another round of beer. ‘how diffi- cult is it to make mixtures of vitamins, anti- oxidants, and feed additives?’ the evening lurched into gear. i was fa- miliar with that charge, the tense energy in the air: whenever nigerians gather (wher- ever in the world that maybe), a moment comes when we give in to an impulse to un- derstand the country, the ways it doesn’t work. we analyse our condition and offer solutions. it is really a vexation of the spirit. if fish is such an important part of our diet here, why do we not seek more control over its production? and it was left to tombari, who had been silent, to say we needed struc- tures and institutions that worked; in this particular case, well equipped and well- funded laboratories for our agricultural scientists. and just like that, we had re- turned to an ever-present problem: struc- tures. our individual talents, grit, energy, creativity, even genius, can only go so far. the question about control would nag me over the following months. how do we, as citizens who value life, have some control over the quality of our existence? the bright future i envisage for nigeria is one in which we step away from being just ‘potential’ or merely a market. we must pro- duce too. it is the role of government to ini- tiate this collective striving to improve our wellbeing and assert positive influence in the global space. and surely, if we love to eat grilled catfish, it is up to us to ensure this culinary joy endures. akzente 2/17 29
in focus a marshall plan with africa towards a new form of cooperation germany is helping its partners in africa achieve the goals they have set themselves – with a new form of cooperation guided by common interests and commitment. guest article by german development minister gerd müller
africa is the 21st century’s continent of op- portunity. it is home to around half of the world’s 20 fastest growing economies and yet many of its people are hungry. africa presents us with opportunities and challenges which we can only address together, by bringing a new dimension to our cooperation. we need a partnership of equals – a marshall plan with, not for, africa. cooperation guided by common interests we need a paradigm shift – away from the outdated concept of donor and recipient countries and towards a new type of coopera- tion guided by common interests and com- mitment. so we are investing in reform part- nerships. this means stepping up our devel- opment cooperation with those partners who implement reforms, good governance and anti-corruption measures. these goals, inci- dentally, were not defined by us: they were set by our african union partners in the agenda 2063. naturally, we will continue to deliver on our responsibility to the least developed countries as well. many people associate the phrase ‘mar- shall plan’ with lavish financial resources, but government funding alone is not the solution to all the challenges africa faces. every year, almost 20 million young af- ricans enter the labour market, but there are not enough jobs for them. our neighbour continent often serves merely as a supplier of raw materials, with much of the processing and wealth creation taking place elsewhere. economic development, job creation and training are therefore the key challenges fac- ing africa over the coming decades. that’s why we need the involvement of the private sector. but of course, adequate public sector funding is also required to ensure a high standard of governance performance and de- velopment investment. so building and ex- panding tax systems is also important. every euro invested in tax reform can leverage many more euros in revenue. . ) 0 3 e g a p ( t e n k e h t o t o h p / y k s w o b a r g e t u : o t o h p ‘we want to work with the people.’ african countries wherever this will deliver the greatest benefits for the in a globalised world, africa’s development also depends on international rules. besides fair trade, this must include mandatory envi- ronmental and social standards and an end to illicit financial flows from africa. every year, africa loses over eur 50 billion through tax evasion and avoidance – equivalent to the amount it receives in international develop- ment assistance. if africa is to assert its own interests, it needs a more powerful voice in international organisations. that is why africa should be granted a permanent seat on the un security council and become a more influential stake- holder in the world trade organization. german business – a development partner currently, only 1,000 out of 400,000 ger- man companies operating abroad are present in africa. nonetheless, there is growing inter- est in german products and services in af- rica. this offers major opportunities, particu- larly for german small and medium-sized en- terprises. so we need to expand the available support mechanisms, such as guarantee schemes, to promote german and european investment in africa. we also want to provide targeted sup- port for our african partners as they develop local industries, business start-ups and train- ing schemes. our german expertise in these areas is in demand all over the world. so when i talk about a marshall plan with africa, i am not referring to one specific solution, pathway or policy. i am talking about generating impetus for a new joint ap- proach, a new form of cooperation with af- rica. we want to work with the african coun- tries wherever this will deliver the greatest benefits for the people. 2017 is africa’s year – the year when the g20, under the german presidency, makes africa a priority for the first time and the eu and the african union use their autumn summit as an opportunity to deepen their co- operation. all of us know that africa’s future means europe’s future too. akzente 2/17 31
through the lens
deceptively airy a roof of white cotton: taken near dhaka in bangladesh, this photograph creates the illu- sion of being in a giant four-poster bed. a woman hangs out lengths of cotton to dry, before they are taken for processing in a dye shop. the airy image is deceptive – many employees at the textile factories in bangladesh work in onerous conditions. on behalf of the german government, giz has improved working conditions for more than two million workers. photo: reuters/mohammad ponir hossain
background our aim is continuous improvement ricardo gomez explains how giz ensures that its projects achieve success. a t the end of every project we ask the questions: what have we achieved? and what can we do better in future? evaluations – independent assessments written by expert auditors – serve as an im- portant compass. let’s take as a case in point jordan, one of the driest countries on earth. only four per cent of its land area is suitable for agricul- ture, and just one per cent is forested. con- taminated soil, for example as a result of uncontrolled rubbish dumps, cannot regen- erate without intervention. the country’s population of 6.5 million has absorbed 1.5 million syrian refugees. that brings addi- tional challenges, not least in terms of waste disposal. giz is promoting environmental awareness on behalf of the german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development. members of the jordanian royal family have played a part in raising awareness among the population and there has been a recycling campaign. despite all this, our evaluation report showed that the results were limited. activities had a very local focus and came to an end when the project finished. so it was important to turn the campaign into something more permanent. a recycling point was set up in the provincial capital karak, which now serves as a model for other municipalities. a company producing egg cartons buys the compressed recycled paper. waste bins and noticeboards have been put up in recreation areas popular with families for picnics, and rangers now en- sure that the rules are enforced. the national campaign employs both jordanians and refu- gees, paying them a small wage to collect and sort waste. slogans on the jackets they wear also promote a cleaner environment. through these measures the campaign now reaches two million people. they should have experience of the approaches used and must not have provided advice at the project planning stage. this case shows the importance of evalua- tions to us, whether in new areas of activity or ricardo gomez heads up the giz evaluation unit. for our classic projects. firstly, they provide a basis for decision-making – on a project’s pri- ority areas, for example. secondly, they create transparency both for commissioning parties and the general public. and thirdly, they pro- mote learning within our organisation: the results can subsequently benefit other projects. evaluations are conducted by external auditors, appointed by us through a public tender procedure. these auditors may be indi- viduals or employed by consultancy firms. the auditors first set out the questions the evaluation should address in a prelimi- nary report. have we reached our target group? are the positive impacts sustainable? are project objectives in line with the policies of the partner country? the report also defines the methods to be used, such as inter- views or workshops with staff, partners and the people who are benefiting from the project. the auditors then compile data for the final report during a two-week visit to the country. not all projects are evaluated externally; the cost for that would be too high. we take a random sample, which enables us to cover between 30 and 50 per cent of projects. all non-evaluated projects are reviewed internally or subject to progress monitoring. compared with similar organisations, this places us at the top of the scale. in future, anyone will be able to access the results online. in addition, we carry out corporate-strat- egy evaluations. a short time ago we looked closely at the way we manage security risk. half of the countries where giz is active suffer from natural disasters, terrorist attacks or violent crime. that evaluation played a part in creating a unit that has enabled giz to pool its knowledge on crisis management and security precautions. and so evaluation, too, brings results. previous ‘background’ articles on giz’s work can be found at: akzente.giz.de/en ) 4 3 e g a p ( t n o m u a e b t o i l l e : n o i t a r t s u l l i 34 akzente 2/17
commitment having your own income is an important basis for leading a self-determined life: three examples of giz’s current work in afghanistan, iraq and the palestinian territories. self-employed rather than unemployed palestinian territories camerawomen and car mechanics – how young people are being given new opportunities. page 36 riches below ground afghanistan how young mining experts can help secure a more prosperous future for their mineral-rich country. page 46 working towards a dream of happiness iraq how refugees are earning a little bit of independence with jobs in refugee camps. page 42
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commitment self-employed rather than unemployed on the west bank, where jobs are scarce, vocational schools are helping young adults to find success on the labour market. text uta rasche photos thomas imo wafa mohammed ziada is from the village of bilîn, a few kilometres west of ramallah. today she is re- turning to her vocational school as a visitor and guest. her face radiates satisfaction, as well as hint of shyness. she is given a warm welcome by her teachers at the palestine technical college for girls in ramallah. wafa is now a young entrepreneur. when she was still at the college, she started up in busi- ness as a self-employed wedding photogra- pher and videographer. she knows she has a lot to be proud of – even if she doesn’t show it. she is 22 years old, married and has a young daughter. she graduated in summer 2016. for her teachers, wafa’s success is con- firmation that their approach is working: she is fully booked for every weekend of the wed- ding and engagement season, which runs from march to the start of ramadan. she set up her photographic studio in a shop next door to her husband’s hairdressing salon. the married couple’s two businesses complement each other well, and they are able to feed their young family without rely- ing on parental help. that is not always the case here on the west bank: according to the in her element: wafa mohammed ziada is already a professional behind the video camera – and she clearly enjoys her work. palestinian central bureau of statistics, the unemployment rate among young adults is around 40 per cent. as almost everywhere, universities in the palestinian territories attract hordes of young people – but the lack of large companies in the region means that jobs for graduates are few and far between. on the other hand, there is great demand for builders, joiners, painters and decorators, car mechanics and plumbers. this is the starting point for giz’s work. on behalf of the german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development (bmz), giz helps schools, the ministry of labour, the ministry of education and higher education, and the chambers of crafts and trades to bring technical and vocational educa- tion and training (tvet) more into line with the needs of the market. the schools achieve particularly good results when they equip young people with the skills they need to set up their own businesses. the european union also provides financial support to the pro- gramme with the objective of broadening its impact. of the 6,500 young adults taking part in the programme, it is anticipated that half will have found a job in their chosen trade within six months of completing their voca- tional training; around 500 are expected to start up a business of their own. it is even harder for young women to find employment than it is for young men. founded in 1952, the technical college for girls in ramallah offers courses in subjects such as accountancy, technical drawing, ar- chitecture, needlework and fashion design. few typically ‘male’ professions are available to women in palestinian society. soon, how- ever, the vocational school in jenin in the northern west bank will introduce a paint- ing and decorating course for girls – a minor revolution in itself. but it is based on a prom- ising concept: according to the traditional moral code, tradesmen are only allowed to enter a family’s private rooms in the presence of the male of the house. female painters and decorators, on the other hand, can work even when only the women and children are at home – a potential gap in the market for these young women. first year intake: everyone found a job wafa has exploited a similar opening. palestin- ian weddings are major festivals that can last for up to three days. often they involve several hundred invited guests, sometimes the entire village, and a huge extended family. men and women generally celebrate in separate rooms. in such cases, the male guests – including the photographer – are prohibited from entering the room for women. and that is where wafa’s success story begins: her wedding videos, akzente 2/17 37
top: strict selection criteria: sandos abubaker is head of a vocational school in jenin. ‘we only take the best,’ she says. bottom: a good environment for learn- ing new skills: the film studio in the competence centre at the palestine technical college for girls in ramallah. top right: practice makes perfect: ameer abu-wafa dreams of becoming a self-employed carpenter. the practi- cal elements included in his training will stand him in good stead. bottom right: concentration required: ameer’s fellow students are equally industrious. the well-equipped joinery workshop ensures they receive a very hands-on approach to training. 38 akzente 2/17
commitment which are at least two hours long, are also able to document the event as experienced by the bride and female guests. these videos carry enormous value for the families. since many of them spend a great deal of money on the wedding, it is important that the festivities are recorded in all their splendour and from all perspectives. in 2014, giz set up a state-of-the-art film and sound studio at the palestine tech- nical college for girls. it was commissioned by bmz in partnership with the swiss agency for development and cooperation. an annual intake of up to 24 young women receives training here over a period of two years. today a group of students are standing beside four cameras in a darkened room, with giant spotlights hanging from the ceiling. they are debating who should read the voice- over text, who should stand where, what camera angles they require. this is the studio in which wafa learned her craft. naturally, the college’s management team hopes that its graduates will one day become famous tv journalists – perhaps working as reporters for the al jazeera network to draw attention to the situation of the palestinian people. but for now, it is success enough that the entire first class – which included wafa – has already found work, either with television production companies or as wedding videog- raphers. no one was quicker off the mark than wafa. she began setting up her own business before she had even finished the course. as a high school leaver she had al- ready decided that she had no intention of spending years at university without the prospect of a job upon graduation. instead, she preferred the idea of starting work as soon as possible in order to gain financial in- dependence and support her family. now she has achieved her dream. forging links with companies while still at school for the young men at the vocational school in jenin in the northern west bank, that dream is still some way off. fifteen of them are hard at work in the joinery workshop, sanding down wooden window frames by hand. akzente 2/17 39
also available on the akzente app: school principal sandos abubaker tells her story. akzente.giz.de/en left: under the bonnet: qais abu-rub and modar sa’abnah work as a team to strip the engine of a vw golf. the young men are training to become motor mechanics. right: attention to detail: the youngsters must learn about every component of the car. ameer abu-wafa, aged 18, hopes to set himself up as a self-employed carpenter in his village. his father works as a day labourer in israel, since he can earn more there than in the pales- tinian territories. but he has no employment contract, nor any kind of insurance. that is the usual form of employment here. many fathers hire themselves out to work in local quarries, mining the typical limestone used in house con- struction by israelis and palestinians alike. oth- ers find employment in the fields – work that is arduous, poorly paid, and seasonal. ameer’s parents still support their son fi- nancially, but that is soon set to change. in line with the school’s approach, he has already es- tablished links with professional carpenters during his school training. and he aims to find a job with one of them as soon as he passes his examination. the west bank does not currently offer a dual training system simi- lar to the german concept, in which practical experience and school-based vocational train- ing run side by side. nevertheless, developing this stronger practical focus is one of the pro- gramme’s key objectives. there are currently ten state-run and around 50 private vocational schools on the west bank. in addition to these, there are also six ‘competence centres’, co-developed by giz. these include the school in jenin and the pal- estine technical college for girls in ramal- lah. these centres provide training for teach- ers from other schools, are very well equipped and are tasked with overall modernisation of vocational education and training through cooperation with companies. vocational schools suddenly in demand in an adjoining room, aspiring car mechanics are busy working on a white vw golf. they are learning how to repair the alternator. dressed in overalls, with slicked hair and oil- smeared hands, the young men are hard at work. of course, all of them hope to open their own car repair shop one day. ‘and buy a bmw,’ one of them adds. the other gives a wry smile, perhaps finding his colleague’s cocky remark a little overambitious: ‘i’d settle 40 akzente 2/17
commitment for a golf.’ there is every chance the pair will achieve their dreams. the street next to the vocational school is lined with garages, all of them filled with cars awaiting repair. sandos abubaker, the principal at the school in jenin, is now inundated with appli- cations. not long ago, tvet was looked down upon on the west bank; today voca- tional schools are in demand. the school principal, an energetic woman of about 50, receives over 1,000 applications for 246 places. her candidate selection proce- dure takes into account school grades, an en- trance examination and an interview. she also considers students from the refugee camps and villages in israeli-administered area c. ‘we only take the best,’ she empha- sises. it is now considered a mark of distinc- tion to study at a vocational school. once a trainee, now a respected boss sami alawneh was well aware of this and grasped the opportunity with both hands. he is 27 years old and a self-employed painter/ decorator, drywaller and plasterer. he gradu- ated from the vocational school just a year ago. now he has between two and seven em- ployees working for him, depending on his current order situation. most of them come directly from the vocational school, just as he did. at the moment they are working on a construction site at new office and commer- cial premises in jenin, installing the walls and ceilings for a new medical practice. recessed spotlights, pastel shades – all tastefully and professionally done. before going to voca- tional school, sami had already worked on construction sites, so he has experience in a number of trades. today he is a respected ‘boss’ – and father to a young son. he is also a role model for younger students. his teach- ers are proud of him. and without question, sami is delighted with his own success. > contact andreas adrian > firstname.lastname@example.org cora götemann > email@example.com palestinian territories lebanon syria palestinian territories israel jordan egypt population: 4.7 million gross domestic product per capita: usd 3,0901 economic growth: 12.4 per cent2 human development index ranking: 114 (out of 188) source: 1 world bank 2014 2 world bank 2015 opportunities for young people project: tvet and employment promotion programme (tep) commissioned by: german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development, european union, swiss agency for development and cooperation lead executing agency: palestinian ministry of education and higher education; palestinian ministry of labour term: 2015 to 2018 young people in the palestinian territories are particularly vulnerable to unemploy- ment. the reason for this is the unstable economic and political situation and resulting low economic growth. at the same time, companies trying to succeed in this market struggle to find adequately trained skilled workers. for this reason, giz is working to bring technical and vocational education and training (tvet) more into line with the needs of the labour market. to achieve this, it collaborates with decision-makers, business associations and schools. it provides teachers with further training and school leavers with better advice, and gives curricula a more practical focus. 6,500 young adults will initially take part in the programme; other students will benefit from the teacher training and improved curricula. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/37717.html akzente 2/17 41
commitment working towards a dream of happiness even after surviving terror and displacement, nada yussuf kada refuses to give up hope. at the kabarto refugee camp in northern iraq, the yazidi woman campaigns for women’s rights and is herself a role model. text gabriele rzepka photos fabian schwan-brandt her husband was arrested by saddam hussein’s police, her youngest son lost an arm in a bomb attack, terrorists from the islamic state (is) murdered her sister-in-law – and yet nada yussuf kada refuses to give up. the 47-year-old yazidi has been internally displaced since 2014, and not for the first time. back in the mid-1970s, when the troops of iraqi dictator saddam hussein forced her family to flee the sinjar mountains, kada sought refuge in the kurdish town of sulay- maniyah. there she married her cousin, and in 1982 returned with him to her village in the sinjar mountains to start a family. she gave birth to her first son when she was 14 years old and went on to have four more chil- dren. but her husband was sent to prison in 1995, because he refused to fight in the iraqi army. how was she going to make ends meet and bring up her children alone? ‘i desper- ately needed work, so in 1996 we moved to be with my mother in mosul,’ kada explains. ‘in sinjar it was not approved of for women to work.’ determined: nada yussuf kada has no desire to sit around. she was pleased to be offered the opportunity of work at the camp – and was quickly made a team leader. kada found a job at a sewing factory in mo- sul. but the police paid her frequent visits and tormented her with questions about her husband. after a few years she filed for di- vorce – she could not put the lives of her children in danger any longer. for a few years after that the family was left in peace. kada no longer has any contact with her husband. the yazidi woman started saving to open her own small tailoring business. but she was forced to abandon these plans in mid-2014. when is captured mosul, terrorists put pres- sure on her brother – a qualified electrician – to build a generator for them. ‘that was out of the question, so he went into hiding.’ but there was a lot of support for is among the people of mosul. ‘we don’t know which of our neighbours gave them the name and ad- dress of his wife. one day they came and murdered my sister-in-law,’ kada says, with tears in her eyes. with the thugs now on his tail, her brother fled to relatives in kurdish northern iraq. kada also decided to leave is-con- trolled mosul and set off with her mother and children to the northern iraqi province of dohuk. today they live in the kabarto refugee camp. the dusty dirt roads are lined with tents. kada was provided with two, ac- commodation for herself, her children, grandchildren and her mother. between their tents is a small brick-built kitchen and bathroom. the family have gradually made life a little more comfortable for themselves: kada’s children stretched a tarpaulin be- tween the two tents and across the kitchen and bathroom to create a roof. inside there are carpets, scattered with the grandchil- dren’s toys. at night, the living and playing areas are transformed into bedrooms. mat- tresses used for seating during the day now become beds. ‘i want to show everyone that we will not be broken’ kada attends courses in english and sewing at the camp’s community centre. she is also active in her own right, offering courses for women. her topic is women’s rights; her mo- tivation: ‘i want all women to understand that we are valued, that we have rights, that we are allowed to have an education and hold our own opinions. the terrorists want to en- slave women. but i want to show everyone that we will not be broken by is, but that we can break them!’ the community centre kada attends is run by the kurdish ngo harikar. giz supports harikar on behalf of the german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development. when kada heard about the cash for work programme, she contacted it straight away. there was work going on a building site, paid by the day. even though construction akzente 2/17 43
also available on the akzente app: an insight into the kabarto refugee camp akzente.giz.de/en top: kada and other residents at the camp help build a recreation facility. bottom: the kabarto refugee camp pro- vides shelter from the ‘islamic state’ for people from syria and iraq (left). despite all adversity, kada wants life in the camp to be as pleasant as possible for her family (right). work is typically a man’s job, she applied and was offered work for 40 days. residents at the camp are in the process of building a recreation area which they will later be able to use themselves. giz planned the entire project in partnership with the kurdish authority for support and humanitarian affairs. there will be areas for football, bas- ketball, volleyball and table tennis as well as three playgrounds, meeting areas and green spaces. all the joinery will be undertaken by the joinery workshop from the khanke refu- gee camp, where the evangelical us-based international relief and development organ- isation samaritan’s purse runs a training programme for joiners. giz is supplying the wood to enable them to complete their first major order. kada can still remember what the area looked like before building work began – a wasteland about a kilometre in length and up to 150 metres wide: ‘it was just a swamp here. there was a stream of wastewater that couldn’t drain and just formed puddles and mud. it stank. it wasn’t a pleasant sight.’ today the stream runs through an under- ground pipe beneath the new recreation area. this now feeds into a wastewater treat- ment facility. the treated water will in fu- ture be used to irrigate the trees and green spaces in the recreation area. it is already possible to see the transformation under way on the former wasteland. kada’s job was to level the ground and build walls. every morning she was there without fail, ready to work an eight-hour day. the engineers soon noticed her dedica- tion. after just a few days she was put in charge of her team of workers: ‘my job was 44 akzente 2/17
commitment to check they were all there on time, and i encouraged the women in my team to work hard. if anyone tried to bunk off, i reported it to the supervisor. and i worked the whole time alongside my team, of course.’ kada earned one million iraqi dinar during her 40 days on the programme, equivalent to around eur 800. having left all her worldly possessions in mosul, the money came in very handy. the single mother immediately prioritised how she would spend her eur 800: ‘the first thing i bought was a water filter – the water qual- ity here is not very good. now we no longer need to boil our drinking water.’ kada was also able to pay for a doctor to treat her mother and buy the medicines she needed. and she even treated herself and the family to a few luxuries: ‘we bought a wardrobe and a tv – since it seems likely we will be staying at the camp for some time. i think it’s important to make your home look nice if you want to feel a little at ease in these challenging circumstances.’ waiting to return to liberated mosul two of her sons have joined the peshmerga and are fighting as soldiers in the kurdish army to defend the region against is. her two daughters now have children of their own and live with her in the camp, along with her youngest son who lost an arm. for kada it is clear that the road ahead will be long. ‘i wish so much that everything will be right again and that we can return to mosul. i want to go back there as soon as is has been driven out, so we can rebuild our house.’ for kada, the dream of happiness is crystal clear: ‘is has to go, the security situ- ation has to be stable and i need to have the prospect of finding work again.’ and as soon as that happens, she will pack her belongings and start building a new future – all over again. > contact marc levesque > firstname.lastname@example.org iraq turkey syria jordan iran iraq capital: baghdad population: 36 million gross domestic product per capita: usd 4,9441 economic growth: 3 per cent1 kuwait human development index ranking: 121 (out of 188) saudi arabia source: 1 world bank 2015 a piece of independence project: temporary stabilisation of vulnerable households of refugees, idps and host community members in northern iraq commissioned by: german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development lead executing agency: republic of iraq ministry of planning (mop) term: 2016 to 2017 around three million iraqis are internally displaced, mostly in the autonomous region of kurdistan. there are additionally approximately 250,000 refugees from syria. in some places in northern iraq refugees outnumber the indigenous population. the kurdish regional government is struggling to meet basic needs; jobs are in very short supply. on behalf of the german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development, giz is providing refugees and those in need in host communities with jobs for up to 40 days. they are employed to build roads and recreation areas, dispose of waste, help with farming or provide social services. for families where no family member is able to work, the programme provides one-off support. 30,000 households have received a temporary income in this way. www.giz.de/displacement akzente 2/17 45
commitment riches below ground afghanistan’s mineral wealth could solve the country’s enormous economic problems. but for that to happen, it needs trained experts. an institute in kabul is now developing a pioneering role in the mining sector. text marian brehmer photos mustafa najafizada the geological map of afghanistan is like an abstract painting: a kaleidoscopic patchwork of interconnected areas. orange, yellow, green, blue – the colours serve to illustrate the fact that hardly a square centimetre of the chart is without mineral resources. the map hangs not in an art museum, but in an exhibition of rock samples on the third floor of kabul poly- technic university. at the end of a broad corridor is afghanistan’s most prestigious mining institution, the underground min- ing engineering department. when the university was established by the soviet union over 50 years ago, little was known about afghanistan’s underground riches. only in recent years have geologists begun to explore the extent of mineral depos- its in the hindu kush. but today there is no doubt: the metals and precious stones hidden beneath afghan soil are valued at around usd 1 trillion. these resources include lithium, currently in great demand from the electronics industry, as well as a whole array of rare earth elements. untapped potential: coal sold at the market in kabul (photo) comes mainly from small and often illegal mines at present. ‘mining has the potential to solve our coun- try’s economic problems and create many new jobs,’ says amanullah zahid. the subjects he teaches at the university are mining machin- ery and manual processing. his courses focus on the way machinery is used to extract natu- ral resources and how the minerals, once extracted, are processed. zahid explains these issues with the focused precision of a true technician. outside his office stand four painted pol- ystyrene boxes, illustrating the most common types of mine. the models were made by fourth-year students from the bachelor’s de- gree course. but afghanistan still has few mines that extract minerals on an industrial scale. what’s more, the country lacks compa- nies with the technology necessary to process the raw materials efficiently. that’s why promotion of trained techni- cal experts is at the heart of a project to de- velop higher education courses for the afghan mining industry. in partnership with the afghan ministry of higher education, giz is developing new curricula for mining courses on behalf of the german federal foreign of- fice. experts have been busy revising the old, heavily theoretical curricula, many of which hail from the soviet era. in addition, a new laboratory is currently under construction at the kabul polytechnic university. since much of the department’s equip- ment was looted during the years of civil war, there has been little practical teaching in re- cent years. but that is all set to change. soon students will gain valuable insights into min- ing practice in the freshly renovated rooms of an adjoining building. the concept for the room layout was developed by germany’s leading mining university, tu bergakademie freiberg. the plan shows the departments contained within the laboratory: a rock col- lection and experiment rooms for geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, geochemistry, oil and natural gas. no field trips in the country – the risk is too high during two visits to freiberg, amanullah zahid was able to see for himself what a modern mining training programme might look like. in particular, excursions to the university’s opencast mine were a revelation for the engineer. from blasting and drilling to transportation, here he witnessed the dif- ferent processes of mineral extraction at first hand – and for the first time. finally, the theoretical knowledge acquired from a four-and-a-half year bachelor’s degree course became real. ‘i was able to see with my own eyes what i had always tried to show my students as theory on the blackboard,’ says zahid. ‘and i also discovered things i had been explaining incorrectly.’ he now uses the video footage he filmed at the mine in his courses for students. study visits of this kind are out of the question in afghanistan, since the taliban akzente 2/17 47
maintain a presence in many regions of the country that are suitable for mining. the poor security situation also deters foreign investors and mining companies. that is why most mining is done by hand – and generally on an illegal basis. in zahid’s home province of wardak, southwest of kabul, the taliban use mineral extraction as a means to great self-enrichment. according to some estimates, around half of all reve- nues from afghan mining ends up in the pockets of local warlords. the provinces see too little benefit from their mines zahid is well aware that exploiting afghani- stan’s mineral wealth involves significant risk. conflicts over resource allocation between local warlords could plunge the country once again into civil war. so re- sponsible governance is key when it comes to mineral resources. passed in 2014, afghanistan’s new min- ing law stipulates that five per cent of reve- nues from any mine must make a direct con- tribution to development of the relevant province. however, the country currently lacks the highly trained experts required to control and monitor such processes. there is little dialogue between the ministry of mines and petroleum and the mining experts at the polytechnic university. but that is set to change. ‘once graduates of the six modern- ised bachelor’s degree courses are able to feed their expertise into afghanistan’s political system, we will be able to make a significant contribution to the country’s development,’ says arnim fischer of giz. a conversation with zohra hazrati gives reason for hope. the cheerful mining student in her eighth semester is the only female in a programme of 32 participants. hazrati sits at a well-worn desk in the front row, closely fol- lowing the powerpoint presentation in which amanullah zahid explains mining machin- ery and how it works. when hazrati opted for a degree course in mining, her friends were genuinely aston- ished, wondering what it was about mining 48 akzente 2/17 also available on the akzente app: a lecturer talks about his work. akzente.giz.de/en top: lecturer amanullah zahid in the well-stocked faculty library centre: workers at a small coal mine in samangan province bottom: zohra hazrati is one of very few female students. her dream is to get a job at the afghan ministry of mines and petroleum.
commitment that attracted her. ‘most areas of technology have already been investigated exhaustively, but in mining there is still a lot to be done,’ she says. when she finishes her course in ka- bul, her plan is to study for a master’s degree in freiberg. one day she hopes to work for the ministry of mines in kabul and to help exploit afghanistan’s mineral wealth. in addition to visiting germany, the del- egations from the polytechnic university also flew to training courses in neighbouring iran, which has much greater experience in issues of mining compared with afghanistan. af- ghan lecturers also took part in international conferences in teheran. these marked the start of a regional partnership between af- ghanistan, iran and china in which german universities participate as well. students now complete internships with iranian mining companies. and with the publication of a regular mining journal, kabul university is seeking to reach out to the international aca- demic community. latest research literature in- stead of out-of-date periodicals the mining section of the university library, equipped with funding from giz, is a promising start. it is immediately evident that the library’s reading room has suffered greatly in recent decades. the windows are covered in dust, the fluorescent lamps flicker, the overriding colour is the grey of out-of-date periodicals, which cause the rickety metal shelving to buckle under their weight. standing in marked contrast to all this is a bookcase filled with colourful new publications. amanullah zahid proudly indicates the gleaming spines of the latest research literature in his field, with titles such as ‘fundamentals of rock mechanics’ and ‘applied geomorphology’. zahid and his colleagues are very determined to achieve the leap to a state-of-the-art mining training programme. > contact arnim fischer > email@example.com afghanistan uzbekistan turkmenistan tajikistan afghanistan iran pakistan capital: kabul population: 30.6 million gross domestic product per capita: usd 1,9251 economic growth: 0.8 per cent1 human development index ranking: 169 (out of 188) source: 1 world bank 2015 experts of tomorrow project: academic mining education in afghanistan commissioned by: german federal foreign office lead executing agency: afghan ministry of higher education term: 2014 to 2017 there are enormous opportunities in the afghan raw materials sector – but the country lacks the experts necessary to extract, process and market the mineral resources in a professional manner. although relevant courses of study are available, they offer much too little practical experience and do not meet the required level. giz is therefore working on behalf of the german federal foreign office to support the training of future technical experts in the field of mining. in the german academic exchange service (daad) and the tu bergakademie freiberg (freiberg university of mining and technology), giz has found two partners able to provide invaluable support on technical and educational issues. degree courses such as geology and mining are now undergoing a thorough revision process. by training its own experts, afghanistan will be less dependent on foreign consultants and companies and able to achieve higher revenues. ultimately this will also contribute to political and economic stability. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/358.html akzente 2/17 49
special our work makes a difference more jobs, more codetermination, more electricity from renewable sources: on behalf of the german government, giz offers solutions to economic, social, political and environmental challenges. results from 2010 to 2015. s u r v e y p e r i o d : 2 0 1 0 – 2 0 1 5 g i z o p e r a t e s o n b e h a l f o f t h e g e r m a n g o v e r n m e n t . 50 akzente 2/17
wahl more than 300 million people with health insurance! that’s how many people today enjoy better health insurance cover with the support of giz. by way of comparison, the united states of america’s entire population is around 320 million. how the data was collected in the period from 7 june to 8 july 2016, all giz p roject managers were surveyed with support from the survey centre of the university of bonn, and data on results from the period from 2010 to 2015 was collected for around three quarters of projects. giz’s sectoral department verified the plausibility of the information, and it was analysed by the evaluation unit. the graphics reflect 800 programmes from 22 sectors. further results: www.giz.de/evaluation akzente 2/17 51
editor’s picks art in the lagoon venice the international art exhibi- tion in venice is the mother of all biennials. this mega event has taken over the historical city every two years since 1895. alongside the artwork (such as this piece by giorgio griffa), a special feature of the exhibition is the 86 national pavilions. nigeria and kiribati are taking part this year for the first time. the curator of the 57th biennale, christine macel, considers art to be ‘the last bastion, the unequiv- ocal alternative to individualism and indifference.’ 13 may to 26 november 2017 www.labiennale.org ) p o t , 2 5 e g a p ( a m o r l l i e n ' o n a c r o l a i r e l l a g , y r e l l a g n a l p a k y e s a c , t s i t r a e h t f o y s e t r u o c , o i s e r a c o i l u i g : o t o h p 52 akzente 2/17 film on the island zanzibar the zanzibar international film festival is also known as the ‘festival of the dhow countries’ in reference to the traditional boats that sail the indian ocean. instead of golden bears or palms, it therefore awards golden dhows. in 2016, rwandan film-maker marie clémentine dusabejambo received the award for her short film ‘a place for myself ’. since it was founded in 1997, the annual festival has become one of the biggest cultural events in east africa. 8 to 16 july 2017 www.ziff.or.tz
info litprom recommends litprom – the society for the promotion of african, asian and latin american literature – provided these reviews for akzente. the titles were selected from litprom’s list of best new novels. www.litprom.de the trials of the last sijilmassi novel after a sudden epiphany, mr s, a successful manager, decides to give it all up and move back to the countryside, where he begins to radically confront his roots, his muslim faith and his language. a grotesquely exaggerated and highly amusing story. anita djafari, chief executive, litprom fouad laroui, morocco published in french pocket, 288 pages kokoro novel sensei is wracked with guilt. this was the only way to win the heart of the beautiful shizu. yet no one knows of his suffering. his secret only comes to light when he is be friended by a young student. a key work of modern japanese literature. captivating to this day. katharina borchardt, literary critic and editor natsume soseki, japan translated from japanese by meredith mckinney penguin classics, 256 pages akzente 2/17 53 giz publications sino-german energy partnership available in german this publication provides an overview of the energy policy cooperation between the peo- ple’s republic of china and germany, which began in 2006. the two countries engage in dialogue on sustainable energy supply at the government level, and giz acts in an advisory capacity. partnerships with private-sector en- terprises are also promoted. towards universal coverage in the majority world: the cases of bangladesh, cambodia, kenya and tanzania available in english, martina pellny there is broad consensus that global health care is an important factor in achieving the sustainable development goals. however, there is no consensus on how to achieve this health care for all. the study provides an overview of the latest research. strengthening statehood in a fragile environment available in german, peer gatter, oliver schlumberger et al germany and afghanistan established diplo- matic relations around 100 years ago. to mark the occasion, the book presents numerous examples of germany’s civic engagement in afghanistan. for example, it explores how ser- vices have been made more citizen-oriented. giz publications can be downloaded or ordered free of charge from www.giz.de/publications
introducing marius kaiser climate fund expert when asked about his career, marius kaiser avoids the term ‘climate finance’ – it’s too obscure for his liking. ‘i tend to talk about climate change mitigation and explain that we are helping countries gain access to international funding for protecting the climate.’ this applies in particular to the usd 10 billion pot of the international green climate fund. institutions in developing countries have to be accredit- ed to access this fund. this is a complex process, and kaiser guides them through it. the climate finance expert joined giz in 2013, but his interest in the topic was kindled long before then – at the latest during his studies in edinburgh and oxford, where he specialised in climate policy and renewable energy. he then worked on international climate change mitigation projects in the private sector. kaiser is based in bonn, but often travels to the countries he supports, including uganda, tanzania, zambia, namibia and viet nam. ‘the travel is one reason why my job is so appealing to me.’ he believes that he has benefited greatly from the access to ministries and in-depth insights into working methods in these countries. in his line of work, a good cross-section of knowledge is vital: from climate science and climate-friendly technologies to financing and political frameworks. giz is always looking for experts for its projects. interested? why not visit our ‘jobs and careers’ page: www.giz.de/careers.
akzente publisher: deutsche gesellschaft für internationale zusammenarbeit (giz) gmbh registered offices: bonn and eschborn, germany • friedrich-ebert-allee 36 + 40, 53113 bonn, germany tel.: +49 228 44 60-0, fax: +49 228 44 60-17 66 • dag-hammarskjöld-weg 1-5, 65760 eschborn, germany tel.: +49 61 96 79-0, fax: +49 61 96 79-11 15 sabine tonscheidt, director of corporate communications email: firstname.lastname@example.org internet: akzente.giz.de/en responsible: anja tomic, deputy director of corporate communications (giz) content concept and editing: giz: uta rasche (editor), kerstin nauth frankfurter societäts-medien gmbh: helen sibum (project management), friederike bauer, judith reker, brigitte spitz, oliver hick-schulz (layout), corinna potthoff (photo editing) english translation: hillary crowe, janet fraser, jodie mcgilvary, alan seaton, judith steinau-clark; gillian lester (giz language services) graphic design/lithography: frankfurter societäts-medien gmbh printed by: druckerei lokay e. k., reinheim, germany printed on: arctic volume, certified to fsc standards maps: giz/ira olaleye the maps are for information purposes only and do not constitute recognition under international law of boundaries and territories. giz does not guarantee in any way the current status, accuracy or completeness of the maps. all liability for any loss or damage aris- ing directly or indirectly out of their use is excluded. cover: getty images/the image bank/pete starman all images: giz unless otherwise stated copy deadline: may 2017 published: quarterly current issue: june 2017 issn: 0945-4497 articles by individual authors do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the publisher. akzente has received several awards for its high-quality journalism and design. in 2016 it won the fox award in gold and the fox visual award in silver. a b i l i ty a look back at a project a su s t a i n project: public properties for grid- connected renewable energy projects in chile commissioned by: n d its r e s u l t s german federal ministry for the environment, nature conservation, building and nuclear safety term: 2008 to 2011 then: for a long time, hydropower was the main source of energy in chile. following extended periods of drought, the country’s focus shifted to investing in gas-fired power stations in the 1990s, but even this was not enough to safeguard supply: an energy crisis in argentina led to shortages in the supply of gas in 2004. consequently, chile built several coal-fired power stations, but these were powered by imported coal and caused high levels of emissions. very little use was made of renewable energy – although sun and wind are available in abundance. there was also no government plan outlining which areas were suitable for new wind turbines and solar parks. now: solar and wind energy are now an integral part of the chilean electricity sector and are gaining in importance. on behalf of the german federal environ- ment ministry, giz proved that many state-owned areas in the north of the country offer considerable potential for generating renewable energy. it there- fore instigated a close partnership between the chilean ministry of energy and ministry of national assets. areas deemed particularly suitable were earmarked and could no longer be used for mining, for example. new wind parks were constructed. plants with a capacity of more than 200 megawatts have been built, and others with a capacity of 300 megawatts are under construction. new areas are constantly being put out to tender, thus further increasing the supply of clean electricity. www.4echile.cl ) 5 5 e g a p ( g n a l n a i r o l f , ) 4 5 e g a p ( a w t i l a i r a m : s o t o h p preview akzente issue 3/17 energy from renewable sources is gaining ground much more quickly than anticipated. annual investments in energy from the sun, wind, water and biomass now outstrip invest- ments in other technologies. however, this growth is not spread evenly across the globe. how can poorer countries be included in the global transition to renewables more quickly? what support do they need from the interna- tional community to achieve this? answers to these and other questions will be provided in akzente 3/17. akzente 2/17 55