akzente 1/2019 The GIZ Magazine The ABC of security Literacy courses for the Afghan police force Four-legged therapist Help for traumatised children in Ukraine A promising harvest New knowledge about African cocoa China Perspectives of a world power
Faces and stories YOUNG PEOPLE NEED JOBS AND PROSPECTS. SAYED MAHMOUD AHMED The 27-year-old Egyptian has been promoted to shift manager at a café. He has ambitious plans for the future. You can ﬁnd more ‘Faces and Stories’ online at www.giz.de/stories Scan the code with your smartphone to watch the video.
Editorial CHINA – A COUNTRY ON THE UP AND UP On the pitfalls of simple truths sympathetically, but also objectively and discerningly. And to refrain from jumping to the same, often short-sighted conclu- sions. We hope that this issue of akzente can contribute to this. CHINA EXPERT Professor Eberhard Sand- schneider explores the misconceptions and illusions about the country in his analytical essay. One of his conclusions is that China will not allow itself to be stopped or lim- ited. He therefore recommends engaging with this internationally active and self-as- sured nation in as informed and construc- tive a way as possible. And, from GIZ’s per- spective, I would like to add in this context: while actively upholding our values and, where necessary, defending them. TO CAST AS WIDE A LIGHT as possible on China, this issue’s ‘In focus’ section includes not only an essay on the country, but also an interview with Chinese economist Zheng Han as well as a report on electro-mobility and countless surprising views, facts and fig- ures about China and its people. We hope this will open your eyes to one or two new and perhaps surprising things about China. Because, in the words of the Chinese phi- losopher Confucius: to think and not study is dangerous. ‘THE CHINESE DRAGON breathes fire’ is just one example of the many fear-induc- ing metaphors for China. They often oscil- late between worry and respect, and usually have something to do with size, mass, eco- nomic clout and political influence. And the underlying reason is almost always a fear of being backed into a corner oneself. CHINA’S DEVELOPMENT is breathtaking and worthy of superlatives. In just a few decades, the country has transformed itself from an isolated and agriculture-based planned economy into a first-rate production and export hub. It has fought poverty, is now the world’s second largest economy after the USA and has demonstrated enormous in- novative strength. What is more: China has transformed itself from a recipient into a donor country, from a largely inward-look- ing nation into a global power with leader- ship aspirations – while maintaining an air of both fascination and mystery. REASON ENOUGH for us to take a closer look at the ‘China phenomenon’. Even if it is unusual for akzente to focus on just one country. Especially since Germany’s tradi- tional development cooperation with China ended in 2009. Our rationale is that, as a de- velopment organisation that operates across the world, China’s ambitions often affect us directly. Whether in development projects in Africa, in global climate change mitiga- tion, or in international trade or suprana- tional health issues – without listening to and recognising China’s perspective, it will not be possible to find solutions to the ma- jor challenges of our time. It is therefore all the more important, in our opinion, to take a closer look at this still widely unknown ac- tor on the international stage; critically and ) 3 . P ( L E G O V A I R A M / N E F A R G O T O F F O H E I D : O T O H P akzente 1/19 3 SABINE TONSCHEIDT, Director of Corporate Communications email@example.com
REPORT Gathering momentum Impetus and dialogue on mobility p. 20 OVERVIEW How does the Middle Kingdom work? The everyday life of the individual p. 24 ESSAY China’s meteoric rise Essay by Eberhard Sandschneider p. 26 VIEWS Five perspectives Viewpoints of ﬁve experts p. 32 INFOGRAPHIC Faster, higher, further Development with contradictions p. 34 INTERVIEW ‘China is hungry for success’ Zheng Han, Professor in Shanghai p. 36 BACKGROUND Intercultural bridge-builders Sino-German platform p. 38 EXAMPLES OF GIZ’S WORK New approaches and partners The breadth of GIZ’s activities p. 39 IN FOCUS: CHINA Perspectives From developing nation to world leader: today nobody can ignore China’s global creative force. L A I R O T I D E 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 NEWS From Congo to Berlin Events, new projects and exciting facts and ﬁgures from all over the world p. 6 RESULTS DATA GIZ delivers results worldwide How GIZ records data across countries and projects and what it is used for. p. 10 REPORT The ABC of security Afghan police ofﬁcers are learning to read and write, for everyone’s beneﬁt. p. 12 4 akzente 1/19 ) T H G I R , 4 . P ( R E M H E R B N A I R A M , ) T F E L , 4 . . P ( T E N K E H T O T O H P / O M I S A M O H T , ) P O T , 4 . P ( S E G A M I Y T T E G A I V G C V : S O T O H P
Contents SNAPSHOT A brush with success Traditional brooms from the Chinese province of Hebei are a successful export. p. 40 REPORT A promising harvest More expertise for smallholder farmers in Nigeria p. 48 E T N E Z K A , Y T I L I B A N I A T S U S O F N I 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 INTRODUCING Hello from Dohuk Construction expert Frank-Uwe Abresch on living and working in northern Iraq p. 54 REPORT Four-legged therapist Dogs help traumatised and disabled children in Ukraine. p. 42 akzente 1/2019 The GIZ Magazine The ABC of security Literacy courses for the Afghan police force Four-legged therapist Help for traumatised children in Ukraine A promising harvest New knowledge about African cocoa China Perspectives of a world power COVER PHOTO The cover of this issue shows a primary school class in the Central Chinese province of Hunan. Virtual reality gives them a hands- on impression of the natural sciences. akzente 1/19 5 ) T F E L M O T T O B , 5 . P ( I Y K S N Y H C E T R D N A S K E L O , ) T H G I R P O T , 5 . P ( R E L S N Ä G N I R T A K , ) T F E L P O T , 5 . P ( T O H S O T O H P / E C N A I L L A E R U T C I P : S O T O H P
News 214IN FIGURES million women in developing countries have little or no access to modern contraceptives. Meanwhile, unsafe abortions are a leading cause of maternal mortality. www.oecd.org 1.6 billion people, primarily in developing coun- tries, depend on forests. They provide them with food, medicine and fuel. This habitat is also vital for the climate, as trees store carbon dioxide. Despite this, humans destroy 13 million hectares of forest every year. www.giz.de/expertise 164million people are migrant workers. That is nine per cent more than in 2013, when there were around 150 million. Around 60 per cent are concentrated in three world regions: northern, southern and western Europe, North America and Arab countries. www.ilo.org Big stage: Green Week FOOD AND FAIRNESS Every year, International Green Week in Berlin, which was first launched in 1926, showcases trends in agriculture and food. The German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Develop- ment (BMZ) and GIZ used this platform, with ap- proximately 400,000 visitors, to present its work in a multimedia format. With its theme ‘A world without hunger is possible – with fair procurement and production’, BMZ focused on Africa, while GIZ demonstrated how successfully it is improving value chains and food and nutrition security there. www.gruenewoche.de/en 6 akzente 1/19
News ‘It is hard to overstate the urgency of our situation. Even as we witness devastating climate impacts causing havoc across the world, we are still not doing enough, nor moving fast enough.’ THREE QUESTIONS FOR ANTÓNIO GUTERRES, UN Secretary-General, at the opening of the Climate Change Conference in Katowice, Poland, on 3 December 2018 ADENIYI KAZEEM ADEGOKE Global motivation ) P O T , 7 . P ( H C S Z T N E R N A I L U J : N O I T A R T S U L L I , ) P O T , 6 . . P ( T E N K E H T O T O H P / O M I S A M O H T : O T O H P SUSTAINABLE IDEAS Creativity was the order of the day with GIZ’s first ever Sustainability Champions con- test for staff around the world. The aim was to find promising projects to reduce CO2 emissions within the company. A total of 30 teams entered, with a view to winning a prize in one of five categories. The winners were chosen by GIZ’s staff. The successful teams came from Brazil (pictured, they developed a carpool app), Boliv- ia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Thailand and Rwanda. The winning ideas in- cluded a solar charging station for electric bicycles and a voluntary work- ing day with children and young peo- ple. The competition aims to shine a spotlight on the various sustainability initiatives within the company and to acknowledge their value. akzente 1/19 7 He is the country coordinator of the Competitive African Rice Initiative (CARI) in Nigeria. GIZ is implementing the project on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) in four countries. The project is cofinanced by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. What is the aim of the initiative? In many countries, there is a high demand for rice that cannot be met by local production. CARI helps actors in the rice sector to produce more rice of a better quality. It does so by improving cultivation, developing more efficient value chains and improving access to financial services. The project was launched in 2013. Has it had any im- pact yet? Yes, in northern Nigeria alone the project has benefit- ed more than 400,000 people directly or indirectly; they have a higher income and a secure food supply. Up to three times as much rice is harvested. And we have brought more women into the rice sector. How can you guarantee sustainability when the pro- ject ends in 2021? Mainly through the matching fund mechanism. In the first phase, BMZ and the Foundation financed 40 per cent of the project. Sixty per cent was pro- vided by private and public Nigerian investors. The ratio is now 30 to 70. By the end of the project, local stakeholders will be responsible for 100 per cent of the financing. They can then continue to use the existing training material to provide consider- able support for all actors in the value chain. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/26298.html
News United against climate change ACTION PLANS By signing the Paris Agree- ment, the global community agreed to the joint goal of limiting global temperature rise to well below two degrees Celsius. Nation- ally determined contributions (NDCs) and action plans are a crucial component of the agreement. GIZ supports numerous devel- oping countries in realising their climate change adaptation measures. At the end of 2018, three partner countries – Costa Rica, Mali and India – pre- sented their experiences and findings. The event, which was held at the UN Climate Change Conference (COP), was organised by GIZ in conjunction with the World Federation of Engineering Organizations (WFEO). For Costa Rica, representatives of WFEO explained how the country uses best practices to assess climate-relevant risks in the construction industry – for example, in bridge construction. Representatives from Mali highlighted the prerequisites for the success of their measures: it is impor- tant, they said, to involve all interest groups and decision-makers from the outset – at both the national and regional levels. India is already doing that. There, action plans for climate change adaptation exist at not only the national but also the regional level. The dovetailing of all levels increases the ac- ceptance of projects and thus the chances of success. The exchange of experience shows just how complex the tasks are. Adaptation to climate change affects not only environ- mental and climate-related sectors and min- istries, but also those ministries responsible for planning, finance and governance, as well as civil society and the scientific and academic community. Only with the coop- eration of all interest groups and the sup- port of the population can countries tackle the tasks that lie ahead and realise their na- tional climate goals. Living longer IN COMPARISON Life expectancy is on the rise worldwide: between 2006 and 2017, it increased by seven years in sub-Saharan Africa, and by almost four years in South Asia. Broken down by country, there are still signiﬁcant differences, as the graphic shows. * Life expectancy in years 66.6* 57.9* 81.2* BURUNDI PAKISTAN GERMANY Source: UNDP Human Development Index 2018 New approaches to trafﬁc MOBILITY TRANSITION Trafﬁc, especially road trafﬁc, is not sustainable in its current form. It accounts for around a quarter of all global greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels. A study published at the end of 2018 conclud- ed that an immediate programme for the transport sector is required to limit temperature rise to well below two degrees. It was published by GIZ, the Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21) and the Berlin-based think tank Agora Verkehrswende. The G20 group of 20 key industrialised and developing countries accounts for a disproportion- ately large share of transport-related emissions: more than two thirds. ‘The report can be used as a basis for debate in the G20 countries and beyond, with a view to jointly making transport climate-neutral,’ says Tanja Gönner, Chair of GIZ’s Management Board. The study is called ‘Towards Decarbonising Transport 2018 – A Stocktake on Sectoral Ambition in the G20’. www.agora-verkehrswende.de/en 8 akzente 1/19
News Blockchain - innovation in Georgia PIONEERING ROLE New technologies can provide innovative solutions for sustainable global development. Blockchain is one such technology: it can be used to store information in an especially transparent and tamper- proof manner. GIZ is already using Blockchain in three projects – in Chile, the Philippines and Georgia. In Georgia, GIZ is supporting the Government in reforming the legal system on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. Blockchain is used in the national public register to make entries in the land register available in digital form. Manipulation is practically impossible, and public conﬁdence in the legal system is growing. The success is clear: around one million entries have already been registered. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/359.html NEW PROJECTS GEORGIA WIKI Official language: Georgian / Capital: Tbilisi / Form of government: parliamentary democracy / Head of state: Salome Zourabichvili / Head of government: Mamuka Bakhtadze / Size: 69,700 km2 / Population: approx. 3.9 million (1) / Population density: 56.3 per km2 (2) / GDP per capita: USD 3,790 (3) GEORGIA Tbilisi Sources: (1, 2) UN Data 2017, (3) World Bank 2017 Fair mining Effective photovoltaics Marine knowledge CONGO The working and living conditions of miners in the Democratic Republic of the Congo are the focus of a project launched in early 2019. The project, which is completely privately funded, seeks to test methods of improving con- ditions in small-scale mining. It was ini- tiated by the BMW Group, BASF SE, Sam- sung SDI and Samsung Electronics, and is being implemented by GIZ. It is initially concentrating on one mine, where non- industrial methods are used to mine co- balt. Working conditions there can be very poor. MOROCCO The north African nation has great potential to harness the power of renewable energy. The market for pho- tovoltaic systems is growing. To support consumers and good businesses, Mo- roccan associations have developed a quality label for photovoltaics. On be- half of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, GIZ ad- vised them in conjunction with the Ger- man Solar Association. The German-Mo- roccan Energy Partnership provides the framework for bilateral cooperation. AFRICA What is the best way of protect- ing and using oceans and coasts to pre- serve their incredible biodiversity? In many African countries, the latest scien- tiﬁc information on how to achieve this is not always available. The MeerWissen in Afrika (more marine knowledge in Africa) initiative of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Develop- ment (BMZ) aims to counteract this by improving knowledge- and science-based policy-making. GIZ is coordinating the in- itiative’s activities with selected partner countries on behalf of BMZ. akzente 1/19 9 ) T H G I R , 9 . P ( 1 6 D N E T S E W / S E G A M I Y T T E G , ) E L D D I M , 9 . P ( H B M G A I D E M X T N E C S A / S E G A M I Y T T E G , ) T F E L , 9 . P ( S O T O H P E V I T A E R C G R E B M O O L B / S E G A M I Y T T E G , ) 8 . P ( M O C . . E B O D A K C O T S / V O L R O G L L I R I K : S O T O H P
delivers results worldwide GIZ’s new results data are available now – akzente provides an over- view, with explanations of how they are produced from Lennart Bendfeldt-Huthmann. Why does GIZ collect data worldwide? GIZ’s work is consistently geared to delivering results. We always seek to bring about positive changes and better living conditions for people locally. We collect results data to make these changes tangible, beyond individual projects and national boundaries. This contributes to dialogue with the public and with our partners and commissioning parties. In 2018, we requested data from around the globe for the third time (following on from our data collection rounds in 2014 and 2016). Participation was high: of a total of 2,175 projects, 81 per cent reported on the results of their work in the period between 2015 and 2017. The results can, for the most part, be linked directly to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). For example: between 2015 and 2017, the contribution made by GIZ and its partners helped 970,000 people around the world to find employment. GIZ is therefore contributing to achievement of Goal 8 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. Some 29 million people also received a better school education. That is equivalent to the population of the metropolitan area of Delhi. So how does it work? The first step was to select 10 thematic areas – including displace- ment, climate, employment and agriculture. Within these areas, 29 clear and easily measurable indicators were formulated to include as many programmes and projects as possible. The staff 351 million people have obtained better health insurance. 29 million pupils have received a better school education. 10 akzente 1/19
GIZ delivers results worldwide 3.4 million people have participated directly in political processes. Lower levels of greenhouse gases: emissions have been reduced by 36 million tonnes of CO2 equivalents. 970,000 people have taken up jobs. responsible then reported on all results to which their projects had contributed, and recorded these in a survey portal using a question- naire. We then check the results with support from our Sectoral Department and find comparisons in order to make abstract figures more tangible. For example, 351 million people worldwide received better health insurance – that is more people than live in the USA. What is new in 2018? We have developed our own web portal. With the help of key questions, projects were able to record their results digitally for the first time. This will enable us to collect and publish data every year in future. 2018 was also the first year in which we managed to verify and publish climate-related data. Why is that so difﬁcult? GIZ’s work often has an indirect impact on climate. For example, GIZ advises governments on how to achieve their nationally determined contributions, or prepares feasibility studies for partners. The resulting projects, such as the construction and operation of facilities for renewable energy production, then reduce or prevent emissions of greenhouse gases. Between 2015 and 2017, global output was reduced by around 36 million tonnes of CO2 equivalents thanks to GIZ’s contribution. That is more than the annual emissions of Berlin. Graphics and selected animations: akzente.giz.de/en Further information and background: www.giz.de/results LENNART BENDFELDT-HUTHMANN is a planning ofﬁcer in the Evaluation Unit. Before joining his current team, he was responsible for monitoring in a peacebuilding project in Sri Lanka. akzente 1/19 11
Report THE ABC OF SECURITY How measures to improve the literacy of police ofﬁcers in Afghanistan are helping stabilise the country. A visit to Bamiyan Province TEXT AND PHOTOS MARIAN BREHMER
The ABC of security KARIMA HOSSEINI The 33-year-old Afghan stands in front of her police station in Bamiyan. She only learned to read and write as an adult. She had no opportunity to do so during the civil war and Taliban rule. She is now committed to helping other women.
T Report The snow-capped peaks of the Hindu Kush mountains glisten on the horizon. The morning air is crisp and clear, there is not a cloud in the sky. A dirt road leads to a rock face in which two giant statues of Bud- dha once stood watching over the city of Bamiyan, with its 100,000 inhabitants – until the Taliban reduced them to rubble with a truck- full of dynamite in 2001. Times are better now in the province of the same name in central Afghanistan. Bamiyan is considered one of the country’s most stable regions. Just a few minutes’ walk from the Buddha caves, at the police station in the first municipal district of Bamiyan, police officer Ka- rima Hosseini is on duty today. In front of the entrance gate, she waits for visitors in a steel container. There are checks that have to be carried out before anyone can enter the police station. Hosseini asks an old woman to step forward, enters her name in a register as well as the exact time, to the minute. A few years ago, Karima Hosseini would not have been able to perform this routine task. Like many people in Bamiyan, she did not go to school. Today, the 33-year-old has successfully completed the literacy programme implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH on behalf of the German Federal Foreign Office to prepare police of- ficers for their working lives. Since 2015, 700 police officers in the central Afghan province have learned to read and write. The basic course on reading, writ- ing and numeracy is followed by further classes fo- cusing on job-specific knowledge: what is an arrest warrant? How do you document a suspect? What rights does the person have? But it all starts with learning to read and write. Afghanistan has approximately 36 million inhabit- ants, 65 per cent of whom are illiterate. Many police In our video, female police officers report on their new prospects. akzente.giz.de/en Learning during working hours: Afghan police officers take part in the literacy courses directly at their workplace during working hours. 14 akzente 1/19
The peaks of the Hindu Kush mountains on the horizon – the view from Bamiyan, the capital of the province of the same name in central Afghanistan recruits are also unable to read and write. They often come from so- cially disadvantaged households. Instead of going to school as chil- dren, they had to work to contribute to family income. The police force is a popular career choice for people with no schooling in Af- ghanistan. In return, they have to accept a high level of risk: in many parts of the country, police officers are injured or killed in Taliban attacks. Karima Hosseini grew up during the civil war of the 1990s. There were hardly any functioning primary schools at that time. This was then followed by the Taliban regime, which prohibited education for women. If a woman broke the Taliban’s rules, Hosseini remem- bers, she was beaten on the streets. She decided to join the police seven years ago. A woman in her neighbourhood tried to take her own life because of her husband’s violence. With no female police officers to turn to, the woman was desperate. The neighbour did not want to confide in a strange man. Giving women a voice ‘That experience was a turning point for me,’ remembers Hosseini. ‘I wanted to give women in Bamiyan a voice and help them solve their everyday problems.’ Being a female police officer also has its advan- tages in Afghanistan’s conservative culture, she says: ‘It’s easier for us to call on households in which violence is a daily occurrence. Men would not be able to gain access as easily.’ Hosseini’s family supported akzente 1/19 15 AFGHANISTAN Capital: Kabul / Population: approx. 35 million / GDP per capita: USD 586 (1) / Economic growth: 2.6 per cent (2) / Human Development Index ranking: 168 (out of 189) Source: (1, 2) World Bank 2017 Bamiyan Kabul AFGHANISTAN Being able to read and write are essential skills for professional police work. GIZ is supporting efforts to raise literacy levels in Afghanistan on behalf of the German Federal Foreign Ofﬁce. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/358.html Contact: Georg Fritzenwenger, firstname.lastname@example.org
Report Top left: The police station in Bamiyan; the province is considered stable. Top right: 28-year-old Gulsoom Hosseini coordinates the literacy courses for her colleagues in the police force. Bottom left: Karima Hosseini can now also help her children with their homework. Bottom right: Safety first – the police officer logs the details of a woman at the station entrance. ‘I’m a different per- son now that I can read. I think that education changes your character.’ KARIMA HOSSEINI, graduate of the literacy course The project contributes to these United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): her career choice, but many in her social circle had their doubts. A woman who does not stay in the kitchen seemed suspect to many. Yet over the years, her confidence has grown. ‘When I first joined the po- lice, I couldn’t even read an arrest warrant,’ she says. ‘I’m a different person now that I can read. I think that education changes your char- acter.’ After work, she can now help her son and daughter with their homework. The police station where Hosseini works six days a week from 9 am to 4 pm is built in the traditional wattle and daub style of Bamiyan. As well as a department of criminal investigation, a narcot- ics department and an intelligence office, the courtyard also contains a classroom where courses for young police officers are held six days of the week. ‘How do you behave at a checkpoint when you have to stop vehicles and search people?,’ teacher Abdulwahid Hamta asks his class, which consists of nine men and four women. The walls of the classroom are decorated with posters of different types of weapons, a map of Afghanistan and motivational messages in Dari. A student in military uniform and a turban raises his hand: ‘I start by introducing myself by name and explaining why I’m carrying out checks – for example, if there is a specific risk of attack.’ 16 akzente 1/19
The ABC of security In fact, dealing with civilians respectfully is a core element of the special curriculum of the follow-on police course developed by GIZ. The security situation in Afghanistan often requires police officers to carry out military tasks, with clear orders and strict compliance. This can make them seem harsh. ‘The more inconsiderate and incompe- tent the police is perceived as being, the less people trust it – and therefore the state. And when mistrust of the state takes hold, this opens the door to radical, armed groups,’ says Georg Fritzenwenger, who is responsible for the project. Well-trained police officers are therefore an important factor in ensuring stability in the country, which is still fighting Taliban militia in many provinces. Bamiyan, however, is a few steps ahead of other regions. Thanks to its stability, the police there can focus on training. Security deployment during elections The percentage of women who have completed the literacy course is still low, at two per cent. But the potential for social change offered by the young female police officers is high, as Gulsoom Hosseini knows. She has been coordinating the police literacy course in Bami- yan for four years. The 28-year-old has a watchful eye and wears sub- tle makeup and gold bangles under the sleeves of her uniform. She attended the police academy in Kabul, is now studying law and wants to be a role model. ‘We women should be able to work in all areas of public life as easily as men, whether in private organisations or in government,’ she says in a determined voice. The fact that women already play an important role in society in Bamiyan was demon- strated during the national parliamentary elections in October 2018: around 500 women, most of them illiterate, were trained by female police officers – who themselves had already undergone training – to carry out body searches of female voters in front of polling stations. They therefore contributed to ensuring that the elections ran smoothly. Police officer Karima Hosseini is, in any case, happy to have found her calling. The monthly salary of 8,000 afghanis (almost EUR 100) is a solid income in Bamiyan. Is there anything she would like? ‘Safety, security and education for all Afghans,’ she says without hesitation. ‘My primary goal is to serve my fellow human beings. To do that, I’ll keep working for the police until they throw me out.’ She laughs and points to the empty office chair, which belongs to the officer in charge of the police station. ‘My goal is to sit there one day. The first thing I would do as head of police would be to introduce courses in reading and writing for all women in the city, to strength- en their position in society.’ — MARIAN BREHMER is a freelance journalist with a passion for culture in the Islamic world, from Turkey to India. He studied Iranian and Persian language and literature. Currently based in Istanbul, Brehmer has made several trips to Afghanistan for akzente. akzente 1/19 17 INTERVIEW GEORG FRITZENWENGER Manager of the training and literacy programme for the Afghan police Mr Fritzenwenger, what has the literacy programme achieved so far? It is the only GIZ programme to be active in all 34 Afghan prov- inces. On completion, graduates receive an accredited certiﬁcate from the Ministry of Education that is equivalent to year three of school. The increase in conﬁ- dence and professionalism is another critical factor. How does coordination work when the programme has such a wide reach? The ﬂexibility and accessibility of literacy courses is key. The police ofﬁcers take part in the classes directly at their work- place during working hours. This saves time and resources. Courses are currently being held at 2,400 police stations and also at road checkpoints in rural areas. When there is a demand for courses, the re- gional coordinator contacts GIZ. Once a classroom has been found, we immediately supply furniture and teaching materials. What challenges do you face? In unstable regions in particu- lar, where the police have to perform military tasks, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that you are there to serve the public and ensure safety and security. That is why partici- pants on our courses develop better awareness. In the long term, we hope to have a posi- tive effect on the stability of the country. THE PROJECT IN FIGURES 36,000 students currently attend 4,800 courses organised by the literacy programme. 25,000 certificates have already been awarded to graduates of the basic course throughout Afghanistan.
IN FOCUS CHINA From developing nation to world leader – today nobody can ignore China’s global creative force. Perspectives of a world power
REPORT Gathering momentum The electric miracle, smart trafﬁc lights and a dialogue about future mobility – a travel report p. 20 OVERVIE W How does the Middle Kingdom work? Insights into everyday life away from the superlatives and the megaprojects p. 24 ESSAY China’s meteoric rise The country’s ascent is unstoppable. China expert Eberhard Sand- schneider explains the reasons behind the phenomenon. p. 26 VIE WS Five perspectives Experts on China explain their views on the emerging global power. p. 32 INFOGRAPHIC Faster, higher, further China in facts and ﬁgures p. 34 INTERVIE W ‘China is hungry for success’ Professor Zheng Han on strategic projects and a people eager to move forward p. 36 BACKGROUND Intercultural bridge-builders Transformation and diversity of GIZ’s activities in China, explained by Country Director Thorsten Giehler p. 38 EXAMPLES OF GIZ’S WORK New approaches and partners Five examples of projects that illustrate the breadth of GIZ’s work p. 39
In focus: China 20 akzente 1/19
Report Gathering momentum The electric miracle of Shenzhen, smart traffic lights in Jinan and a dialogue about future mobility – a trip through China with Guido Beermann, State Secre tary at the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure Text CHRISTIAnE KüHL Photos DAVE TACOn Behind Guido Beermann a yel- low bus hums and rolls practi- cally noiselessly into the depot of the Shenzhen Eastern Bus Company. Beermann squats down to look at the two black boxes that have powered a traffic revolution in the Southern Chinese metropolis – the batteries fitted below the electric bus. They are incon- spicuous, but so reliable and powerful that Shenzhen has converted its entire bus fleet and most of the city’s taxis to electric power within three years, in order to reduce air pollution. Here alone more than 20,000 ve hicles with alternative engine technology are on the roads. By way of comparison – in summer 2018, a total of 186 electric buses were operating in Germany. At the depot in the east of the city, the Shenzhen Eastern Bus Company vehicles are serviced, repaired and above all charged. An ideal place for Beermann, State Secretary at the German Federal Ministry of Trans port and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI), to visit in order to find out more about the en ergy revolution in China’s transport sector. He is accompanied by a German delegation, which is holding talks at various points with partners in Chinese ministries and busi nesses – sustainable mobility concepts are one point on the agenda. The Shenzhen Eastern Bus Company has not only converted to electromobility. It has also introduced flexible local public transport. In addition to the fleet of white electric buses that serve fixed bus routes, it offers yellow electric buses which anyone can hire online provided they have 25 pas sengers. ‘Lots of people in Shenzhen live a long way away from their workplace. A group of colleagues can hire a bus together to get to and from work,’ explains Manag ing Director Lu Rongyuan. The passengers effectively organise their own bus routes. The service is in great demand – there are a total of 900 ‘demanddriven bus routes’. Two staff members with tablet comput ers manage the rosters for the 160 regular buses serving fixed routes from this depot. ‘Our Smart Traffic Cloud makes it possible. We can use it to order every bus to be here at a certain time with one click,’ explains Lu. A steering system like this is important because buses in China do not follow a timetable. The system stipulates how fre quently the buses run, from every few min utes to every half hour in more isolated sub urbs. The new system has made logistics much faster and easier to handle, says Lu, compared to the complicated system it re placed, with its timetables and paper lists. The visit to the bus company in Shen zhen is part of the SinoGerman dialogue on promoting a mobility and fuel strategy for China. The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH is helping facilitate this dialogue. This is the first and only commission BMVI has so far awarded GIZ anywhere in the world, says Sandra Retzer, Head of Sustain able Mobility, Energy and Infrastructure at GIZ’s Beijing Office. In both countries, transport policy aims to balance the imperatives of climate change mitigation, the need to reduce air pollution and the desire to secure energy supplies while meeting people’s expectations of affordable, safe mobility. This is a chal lenge – and it is hoped that the dialogue will produce some solutions. It is a dialogue that benefits both sides. The quality of life can be improved, especially in towns and cities, and both states will be able to attain the cli mate targets laid out in the Paris Agreement. In terms of electromobility, China is well ahead of Germany. For years China’s Government has subsidised the purchase of akzente 1/19 21
In focus: China electric vehicles and has installed the neces sary charging infrastructure on a huge scale. By the end of 2018, the country had dou bled its capacities in spite of its vast road network – from 2.5 charging stations per 100 kilometres to 5.7. Germany, by com parison, has 4.5 charging stations per 100 kilometres. In 2018, according to official figures, one million electric vehicles were sold for the first time in China. This trans lates as a market share of at least 3.5 per cent. The most recent figure in Germany was 1.9 per cent. In China, private cars are, however, rarely used over longer distances. The gov ernment has set road tolls so high that it is cheaper to take a highspeed train from one city to another than to use a private car. China is nevertheless seen as the world’s leading market for electromobility. ‘I am impressed by how much here is innova tive – and I am convinced that this dialogue is extremely beneficial for both sides,’ says Guido Beermann, who is visiting China for the first time. Chinese delegations are also visiting Germany to find out more about transport fields in which Germany leads the pack. They include intermodal transport, Sandra Retzer tells us. Intermodal transport in volves linking different types of transport. In Germany, train passengers leaving the sta tion generally find good bus, regional and local railway and bikesharing services. In China, the stations for the new highspeed trains are often outside cities with very poor onward transport links. The SinoGerman project and the dia logue are so important to both sides that during Beermann’s visit to the Ministry of Transport in Beijing an extension beyond 2019 was discussed. ‘Transport is one of the most important sectors of our work. There are lots of opportunities to cooperate here,’ says Retzer, who is accompanying the dele gation on its trip through China. Following political meetings at the Ministry of Trans port and a discussion with representatives of German automobile manufacturers in Chi na, the German group stops to visit China EV100. The think tank, which has close links to the Chinese Government, acts as a platform that enables the science and re Top: In Shenzhen’s electric buses, passengers use a smartcard to pay. Bottom: Liu Xiaoshi, Deputy Secretary- General of China EV100, informs State Secretary Guido Beermann about an environmental initiative for the 2022 Winter Olympics. The project contributes to the following United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): akzente 1/19
Report CHINA WIKI Capital: Beijing / Population: 1.386 billion / GDP per capita: USD 8,827 / Economic growth: 6.5 per cent / Human Development Index ranking: 86 (out of 189) / CO2 emissions per capita: 6.6 tonnes Sources: World Bank 2017/2018, International Energy Agency Beijing CHINA Shenzhen ny too at some point, he tells State Secretary Beermann. Wang is one of China’s younger generation. Having studied abroad, he ef fortlessly speaks fluent English with his visi tors. At the end of their trip through China’s cities and over China’s roads, Guido Beer mann and his team have a wealth of new ideas to take home to Germany with them. ‘Even if not everything that is happening here can be transferred to Germany, it is good for both countries to discuss mobility, sustainability and artificial intelligence openly and intensively. GIZ plays an impor tant part,’ sums up the State Secretary. One point that was raised at several junctures during their visit, and that is a much greater issue in Germany, is data protection and data privacy. This is also part of the Sino German dialogue. It is a dialogue among equal partners, not a oneway street. — IN WORDS ‘Transport is one of the most important sectors of our work. There are lots of opportunities to cooperate here.’ CHRISTIANE KÜHL has lived in Beijing and Shanghai since early 2000. From China, the journalist reports for German media on economic, environmental and energy issues. SANDRA RETZER, DAVE TACON works as a photographer in Shanghai. For his reports, he has won the Walkley Award for HEAD OF SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY, ENERGY journalists, Australia’s equivalent to the Pulitzer AND INFRASTRUCTURE, GIZ CHINA SANDRA.RETZER@GIZ.DE Prize. search community, the Government and industry to work together to promote elec- tro-mobility. Liu Xiaoshi, Deputy Secretary- General of China EV100, surprises the Ger- man visitors with an announcement about the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing: one of the two host areas of the skiing disci- plines, Zhangjiakou, has been planned as a low-carbon Olympic area. To this end, 1,800 fuel cell buses, taxis and logistics vehi- cles will be used. An exciting dialogue between equal partners Beermann in turn reports on German indus- try’s projects in the field of hydrogen trucks and locomotives. During the talks, it quick ly becomes clear that both sides are facing the same challenges: how can the costs of fuel cells be reduced? How can renewable energy be best used for electromobility? Beermann and Liu agree that they would like to continue their personal dialogue, es pecially in the field of alternative engine technology, including fuel cell technology. The next stop on the group’s itinerary takes it to the mobility service provider Didi Chuxing. Like the US company Uber, it op erates an appbased ridesharing system, and also develops digital solutions in the field of transport management. The young compa ny demonstrates on vast screens how it uses big data to make optimum use of its drivers. That is possible because in China it is fairly easy to access data and because data protec tion and privacy, as it is defined in the West, is not a feature. Didi has spread a digital net across Beijing and can see in every individu al sector whether enough of its drivers are available to meet demand. Where this is not the case, they can be withdrawn from areas where demand is weaker and reassigned. Smart traffic lights developed by Didi have reduced traffic jams in the megacity of Jinan by 20 per cent. The system automatically adapts the traffic light phases to bring them into line with traffic volume, explains a spokesperson. Host Wang Ben, Didi Chux ing’s Vice President for International Busi ness, flew all round the world to find out more on the ground about the traffic prob lems that various major cities are facing. Wang would like to get involved in Germa akzente 1/19 23
In focus: China How does the Middle Kingdom work? Spectacular infrastructure projects, gigantic megacities, cheering crowds: reports of this sort from the People’s Republic of China focus on size, and on the collective. But what is important in people’s everyday lives? How do the policies impact on the individual in practical terms? Here is an insight, broken down into five areas. The world’s largest parliament RECORD China’s National People’s Congress is the largest parliament in the world with around 3,000 delegates. The National People’s Congress meets once a year, generally for between 10 and 16 days. It has very little to do with the Western concept of separation of powers and parlia- mentarianism. The members are not elected in open elections but second- ed by other administrative bodies such as provinces, regions and army units. As a general rule, the delegates approve Government bills. At the last Congress in 2018, for instance, a provision of the constitution was deleted that limited the term of office of the president to two five-year terms. President Xi Jinping can thus govern the country for as long as he lives. — 2020 SOCIETY In 2020, a social credit system is to be introduced: China intends to accord every citizen a score depending on their social credit, i.e. the extent to which they are useful for society as a whole. On the one hand, the project aims to foster behaviour patterns that are beneficial for society, but Western critics also see it as the largest-scale attempt to date to introduce mass digital surveillance. Details are not yet available, but it is already clear that desired conduct is to be rewarded in the form of additional social credit, while undesirable behaviour will result in points being deducted. Desirable actions will include voluntary work, caring for elderly family members and giving blood. Protesting against authorities or the Government, running a red light or fraud in online games will have an adverse impact on social credit. Citizens with a higher score will be given precedence when it comes to jobs, have easier access to loans and be offered lower rates on public transport. — 24 akzente 1/19
The future in figures IN TRANSITION In China, the family is very important. For many centuries, four generations would live under one roof. With industrialisation, increasing numbers of people moved to the country’s towns and cities, breaking this model. The one-child policy introduced in 1979 under Deng Xiaoping also changed family struc- tures. What was originally intended as a temporary measure remained the country’s official policy for over 35 years. The one-child policy has now been repealed. It is thought to have reduced population growth by up to 300 million people. Today China is home to almost 1.4 billion people. Its birth rate, at 1.6 children per woman, is significantly lower than the USA (1.9) and France (2.0). In a great many year groups there are significantly more boys than girls (115:100). — Overview Women are catching up GENDER In China, women have tradition- ally played a subordinate role to men. Although they enjoyed influence in the family, they played no appreciable role in society, business or politics. One limiting factor was the practice of binding women’s feet, which persisted into the 20th century and restricted their physical radius of action. The bones in young girls’ feet were broken and their feet tightly bound, damaging them irreparably and causing extreme deformity. But that is now all in the past, and women’s roles are changing radically. According to official Chinese figures, more than 43 per cent of the workforce today is female. Women account for about a quarter of the National People’s Congress – and their ranks are swelling year by year. Since 2018, female students have actually accounted for more than half of all students studying for a Bachelor’s degree (52 per cent). China also has by far the largest number of self-made female billionaires in the world. In 2017, there were nine in China – and only five in the USA. — A lack of transparency IN THE DARK China is extremely engaged on all continents and is steadily expand- ing its international cooperation. There are, however, no official figures that would reveal the scale of this cooperation, because the country has not yet signed up to the International Aid Transparency Initiative. While many organisations get good marks for their publications relating to their own business activities, the responsi- ble ministry in China (Ministry of Trade) is ranked last of 45 donors. Only the United Arab Emirates and Japan are deemed to demonstrate a similar lack of transparency. — ) T H G I R , 5 2 . P ( I X A T / S E G A M I Y T T E G , ) P O T , 5 2 . P ( E C N A I L L A E R U T C I P , ) 4 2 . P ( C A P A I S A / S E G A M I Y T T E G : S O T O H P akzente 1/19 25
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Essay China’s meteoric rise The USA emerged from the Cold War as the clear and only victor. But now, 25 years later, it is being seriously challenged by China. The USA is still considered the global power, but China’s rise is unstoppable. China expert Professor Eberhard Sandschneider explains why, and how the West should respond. Illustrations: Florian Bayer O pinions about China diverge. There is scarce- ly another country in the world that provokes such controversial debate in the West. Enthusiasm and scepti- cism have for decades broadly balanced each other out in an intensive and controversial debate. This was already true in the thirty years following the victory of the Commu- nist Party in 1949. But debates have only become more intensive and sometimes more contentious as a result of the rise of China, which began at the end of the 1970s under Deng Xiaoping. China’s impressive economic develop- ment has turned the Western world upside down. When, at the Davos World Eco- nomic Forum, the leader of a Communist system announces to an astounded audience IN THIS ARTICLE 1. IN TRANSITION How the global order and China’s role in it are changing 2. IN CURRENT DEALINGS Where the Western world will have to overcome its expectations and fears 3. IN FUTURE How the West should deal with China’s unstoppable rise akzente 1/19 27 of top managers that he intends to cham- pion free world trade, while the American President, the representative of the so-called free world, does exactly the opposite, it is apparent that parameters have shifted. But China’s rise has not taken place in a vacuum. It also marks a geopolitical revo- lution, which appears to be replacing the Western-dominated world order. This revo- lution means that we are faced with the ex- tremely difficult task of correctly interpret- ing China’s rise, to ensure that we do not make mistakes in the way we deal with this country and its growing global influence. But over the last 40 years, the West’s view of China
In focus: China ‘We spend more time dealing with our own expecta- tions and fears than with the ac- tual driving forces of Chinese poli- tics.’ has repeatedly been moulded by major mis- perceptions. On the one hand, China fascinates us. On the other hand, the debates in the West often demonstrate a marked ignorance of Chinese politics, business, culture and his- tory. We know very little about China in spite of the fact that we can hear and read things about the country almost every day. We spend more time dealing with our own expectations and fears than with the actual driving forces of Chinese politics. Let me take four examples to illustrate this observa- tion: In the late 1970s, when China’s reform policies were first launched, the West doubted whether ‘reforms’ were in fact con- ceivable in a Communist system. At that time, the China experts were largely in agreement that Commu- nist systems could do many things, but that generating prosperity was not one of them. There was evidence enough from the Soviet Union, from Central and Eastern Europe and not least from the German Democratic Republic. But they were to be proved wrong. Over the last 40 years, China has genuinely generated prosperity – while retaining a Communist system. We would not have believed that a Communist system could lift hundreds of millions of people out of absolute poverty, while producing millionaires and even billionaires. But China has managed to. We were wrong. Western self-deception As China opened up, we then dreamt of a vast market for our businesses and products. This dream came true. China can now show impressive figures. In 2017, exports hit almost USD 2.3 tril- lion, while imports totalled more than USD 1.8 trillion. GDP was USD 12.2 trillion. In spite of the steady growth of the Chinese economy, we couldn’t im- agine back then that Chinese businesses would one day become com- petitors, firstly for German companies in China itself, then on third markets, and fi- nally on our own market. It seemed normal to us to invest billions of dollars in China but we did not seriously expect that, one day, Chinese investors would come to Ger- many and invest in hidden champions, pri- marily in Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria. Our third misconception is related to China’s political development. If this coun- try had a large middle class, it was expected, it would only be a matter of time before this middle class demanded a political voice, Chinese society became more pluralist and finally democracy won through. There are so far no signs of this. The Commu- nist Party remains unchal- lenged. The few dissidents play a larger role in West- ern media than in China itself. And finally, we are victims of a fourth mis- conception, which is an expression of our own hubris: we actu- ally believed that we could tie China into the rules and institutions of the liberal world order dominated by us in the West. The famous statement of the American politician Robert Zoel- lick that China should become a ‘re- sponsible stakeholder’ perfectly documents this self-delusion of the West. China is a ‘re- sponsible stakeholder’ – but its definition is Chinese and not Western. Why should China do what is in our interest rather than what is in its own interest? The simple conclusion is that China will not let itself be integrated or stemmed. The country is too large and al- ready far too economically influential to allow anybody to dictate how it should conduct itself at global level. We have no choice but to engage as constructively as possible with a China that is becoming in creasingly selfassertive and active in inter national politics. 28 akzente 1/19
Essay ‘China is in the process of redefin- ing its role in the world and chal- lenging the West- ern economic model and way of life.’ No compromises But what are the reasons for China’s strength and success, and what are its result- ant global ambitions? To put it in very gen- eral terms, China’s secret is the consistent application of a principle Deng Xiaoping, the father of China’s reform policy, ex- plained using the following metaphor: it does not matter if a cat is black or white, as long as it catches mice. The top priority is to retain the sover- eignty of the Chinese state. China will ac- cept no compromises on Xinjiang, Tibet, Taiwan or the South China Sea. Neither is it willing to cooperate in this respect. The second strategic priority is political stability. Anyone aiming to negotiate with China about the role of dissidents, human rights policy, opening up the Chinese market or the rate of reform, will find themselves fac- ing partners who will only move once they can be sure that their own political system will not suffer as a result. The third priority is to hold course for economic growth. This is essential for the legitimacy of the Communist Party. This is another area in which China will not coun- tenance compromise, in spite of all the problems that the unprecedented growth of the last 40 years has brought. The fourth, resulting priority is to consistently build China’s global influence. China is in the process of redefining its role in the world and challenging the Western economic model and way of life. Under President Xi Jinping, China’s Communist Party is pursuing a strategy of pushing back the West, in particular the USA. Based on strategic patience, pragma- tism, economic performance and disruptive technology, the country aims to become the most powerful and influential country in the world by the mid21st century at the latest. no Chinese politician will admit it openly (yet), but the sig nals are clear for all to see. In the West, we apparently don’t want to see. We brand all pointers in this di rection propaganda, and fail to grasp China’s growing selfassertiveness, with all akzente 1/19 29 the consequences thereof. Global ambitions Three examples illustrate this clearly: China’s increas ingly dominant role in Africa has been irritating Western observ ers for years, and is a major challenge for Western development cooperation. Without imposing political conditions, China is investing in infrastructure meas ures that have one main purpose – to meet China’s own demand for raw materials. This policy nevertheless has spin-offs that are beneficial for African economies and Chi- nese investment is thus welcome. Occasion- ally voiced criticism that China is acting like an old-time colonial ruler and that too few local workers are employed are of no more than secondary importance. Examples like Zambia, for instance, which has seen uprisings against working conditions in Chinese companies and criticism of Chi- nese takeovers of local companies, in no way call into question the overall picture. The position is similar with China’s New Silk Road project. Since President Xi Jinping first announced the One Belt, One Road Initiative, or as it is now more ele- gantly termed the Belt and Road Initiative, in 2013, it has become a major geopoliti-
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Essay cal project. With a gigantic infrastructure network, tapping into new markets and creating new value chains, China is en- deavouring to extend its political influ- ence, and increasingly also its military in- fluence beyond Central Asia right up to Europe, and to become an antipole to the USA’s claim to be the leading world power. There is no foreign-policy initiative that more clearly illustrates China’s claim to global power. US President Donald Trump’s efforts to stem China’s growing influence with the help of a trade war will do nothing to change this. This non-military war is about far more than America’s balance of trade deficit. It is about the entire spectrum of the rivalry between two major powers, who are struggling for supremacy in the spheres of security, economics and technology in the 21st century. This conflict would not be re- solved by ending the trade war. The ques- tion as to how the conflict can be shaped and facilitated is crucial for economic coop- eration and peaceful coexistence, and for re- solving the fundamental global issues facing us in the first half of the 21st century. In conclusion, China’s rise is unstoppable, assuming it does not suffer any major inter- nal crisis or war. The latter scenario is an op- tion that is certainly being discussed in the USA, but less in Europe. A scenario of this sort cannot be entirely discounted: even in Ancient Greece the ‘Thucydides Trap’ was a known concept – a military conflict be- tween a rising and a waning power. Cur- rently there are no real signs of either an in- ternal crisis or a military conflict. Unfore- seen events could, however, reverse this situation at any time. We would then all be well advised to consider China’s rise as legit- imate and as a fact. In future China will be at least as important for Germany and for Europe as the USA has been in the past. — EBERHARD SANDSCHNEIDER is Professor of Chinese politics and international relations at Berlin’s Freie Universität. His re- search focuses on Chinese foreign policy, trans- atlantic relations, international relations in the Asian-Paciﬁc region, comparative transformation research and the political systems in China and Taiwan. akzente 1/19 31
In focus: China Five perspectives Ominous threat or powerful ally? Partner for innovation or toughest competitor? Public debate about China is often characterised by superlatives and clichés. akzente asked five experts to present their views on the emerging global power. ‘China is rapidly becoming a major player in global development.’ China’s investments in BRI partner coun tries could, however, undermine China’s agenda. China is rapidly becoming a major player in global development. Beijing is setting up its own institu- tions and financing mechanisms alongside existing international frameworks. In inter national development and aid, China builds on its own experiences and aims to boost growth in developing countries through in frastructure investment especially. This ap proach is also meant to support China’s own growth and internationalise its economy. The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) launched in 2013 has evolved into China’s main plat form for its development and outbound in vestment agenda. Debt sustainability, politi cal volatility, corruption and the quality of ‘China is no longer just a key business partner; it is also our toughest competitor.’ Frank Sieren, Expert on China and author His new book ‘Zukunft? China!’ (Future? China!) is out now. 32 akzente 1/19 Lauren Johnston, Senior Research Associate at Mercator Institute for China Studies Gone are the days when we Western ers were able to set the global rules. Beijing is now calling for the ma jority of the world to have a say. This senti ment is gaining acceptance in emerging economies in Asia and Africa. Like in 19th century Europe, when the majority of citi zens grew tired of being shackled by the no ble minority, the majority of the world’s cit izens no longer wish to be dictated to by the West. For them, we are the world’s nobility. After all, China alone is home to more peo ple than Europe and the USA combined. That means that China is no longer just a key business partner; it is also our toughest competitor.
Dagmar Schmidt, Chair of the German-Chinese parliamentary group ‘I believe that Western hegemony is coming to an end.’ Views ‘Chinese society has undergone phenomenal change and tackled poverty.’ If China is to play a positive and progres- sive role post-Western hegemony, then the reaction of the leading nations to China’s rise will immensely shape its deci- sionmaking. The fact is that China is much more malleable than it appears, but it needs to preserve an image of sovereignty for both Chinese politicians and the public. In fact, the Western media’s often onesided and oversimplified coverage of China has ironi cally reduced their ability to be part of that positive influence. It’s easier to influence others when they feel you view them fairly. It’s easier to point out their flaws when they don’t think that everything you say comes from a place of hostility and racism. ‘We have to concern ourselves much more intensively with China’s domestic, foreign and human rights policy.’ and norms and be able to oppose this where necessary. Barbara Unmüßig, President of the Heinrich Böll Foundation Germany and China are connected by close dialogue. The German- Chinese parliamentary group would like to extend and support the good relations between the two nations. It ad- dresses issues relating to human rights and the rule of law as well as fair economic rela- tions. Chinese society has undergone phe- nomenal change and tackled poverty. Chi- na’s global engagement and its new role on the international stage also pose new chal- lenges for the EU. Together with China, we are committed to strengthening the rule- based international order. ) M O T T O B , 3 3 . P R E L L E K A N I T T E B , ) P O T , 3 3 . P ( L L O N K E I S U S , ) T F E L , 3 3 . P ( G N A H N E R , ) T H G I R , 2 3 . P ( G R U B N E P P O K R O G E R G , ) T F E L , 2 3 . P ( N A B R U O C R A M : S O T O H P Helen Feng, Chinese singer China’s behaviour is contradictory. It places emphasis on multilateralism, yet interests are mainly imple- mented on a bilateral basis. It promises eco- nomic liberalisation, but pursues a national- istic economic policy. With respect to cli- mate policy, there is a strong focus on expanding renewable energy at home, but abroad China finances various new coal- fired power stations, with a focus on fossil based infrastructure. We have to concern ourselves much more intensively with Chi na’s domestic, foreign and human rights policy. China will have a major impact on the world order – we have to understand how this will affect our democratic rights akzente 1/19 33
In focus: China Faster, higher, further Environmental protection and pollution, extreme poverty and growth – China’s development remains contradictory. Unequal distribution Despite impressive growth rates, the gap between rich and poor is growing. In 1990, inequality in China was moderate; according to the International Monetary Fund, the differences in distribution of wealth are now among the most pronounced in the world. Migrant workers 280 million China’s economic boom is due in part to its army of migrant workers: over 280 million at the end of 2017 – that is more than the population of Indonesia. The Chinese Government is now encouraging these workers to return to their hometowns in order to put their newfound knowledge to good use there and strengthen the country’s rural regions. Source: english.gov.cn Economic gains 6-10% Since 1978, the beginning of the market reforms from a planned to a market economy, China has achieved impressive growth rates of between six and ten per cent on average. It had already achieved all Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Sources: World Bank, www.tradingeconomics.com 34 akzente 1/19 22% North America 18% Europe 48.5% Asia Chinese export records China is the world’s largest exporter based on the value of goods. In 2017, it sent products worth around USD 2.3 trillion around the globe. Most of these (48.5 per cent) went to Asian countries, 22 per cent to North America and 18 per cent to Europe. Latin America and Africa accounted for a smaller share of just under ﬁve per cent each. Source: IMF
2 million 2017 Patents China’s innovative strength is also reﬂected in the number of patents it holds, which rose from just over 330,000 approved patents in 2008 to more than two million in 2017. While lagging behind the USA with almost three million patents, China is roughly on a par with Japan and signiﬁcantly ahead of Germany (around 660,000). Source: www.wipo.int 330,000 2008 CO2 emissions China is the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases, accounting for almost 22 per cent of global output. This puts it far ahead of the USA with around 13 per cent. Measured per capita, however, China’s emissions (around 6.6 tonnes) are less than half those of the USA (15 tonnes). Sources: World Resources Institute, Statista 13% 22% C hin a U S A Renewable energy 100 billion China is the world’s biggest investor in renewable energy by far. In 2016, it spent over USD 100 billion on the expansion of renewable energy in China, around twice as much as the USA, and more than the USA and EU combined. Source: World Economic Forum Electro-mobility 4.6 million In 2017, China announced its plans to launch 4.6 million electric vehicles on the market by 2020, thus upping the pressure on other automotive nations. China is also a market leader in the lithium batteries needed for electric vehicles. Source: World Economic Forum 8.5% Infrastructure Since 1992, China has invested an average of 8.5 per cent of its gross domestic product in infrastructure expansion – more than any other country globally, and more than the USA and EU combined. Between 2007 and 2020, 240 new airports and 139,000 kilometres of motorway and high-speed road have been built or are in the pipeline. Source: McKinsey akzente 1/19 35
In focus: China ZHENG HAN is a Chinese academic, advisor and publicist with an international focus. He also teaches in Europe, specialising in strategic economic issues.
Interview ‘China is hungry for success’ Zheng Han is a Professor of Innovation and Entrepreneurship and Chair of the Sino-German School for Postgraduate Studies at Tongji University in Shanghai. In his opinion, the Chinese Government is acting extremely strategically in implementing economic reforms, and the Chinese people are eager to move forward. Interview: Friederike Bauer China has developed its econ- omy at a rapid rate over the past three decades. What are the main features of this change? On the economic side, China has at- tracted investors due to low-cost factors of production such as labour and land. Heavy investments in infrastructure projects have made industry clusters along the coastal re- gions more efficient. The increasing in- come of the population has continuously raised the consumption level of the vast do- mestic market. Politically, the Chinese Gov- ernment has designed its economic and in- dustrial policies in an extremely strategic way and has been effective in their imple- mentation. Could you give an example of this strate- gic approach? The Chinese railway and automotive industries are good examples. Every time the country has faced an economic down- turn triggered by external effects such as the financial crisis in 2008, huge stimuli have been introduced to maintain growth. How- ever, the Chinese economy is at a crossroads now. Transitioning to a more service- and market-driven economy is the next stage of its development. Some critics consider China to be a little obtrusive when it comes to big infra- structure projects, particularly in devel- ) 6 3 . P ( E T A V I R P : O T O H P oping countries. How is that viewed in- ternally? Large infrastructure projects are ex- tremely important for China. For one, they can have a direct and effective impact on economic growth by securing further in- vestments and jobs. And secondly, they are a good way of demonstrating political will for progress and showcasing success. Therefore, they are a preferred instrument of the Chi- nese Government with multiple advantages. Nevertheless, over-investment in infrastruc- ture can also lead to debt issues. This risk has become more obvious recently. China is already the world’s second strongest economy. How would you cate- gorise China’s economy today? As an emerging market, industrialised economy or something else? The Chinese economy is a ‘hybrid’ of an emerging market and an industrialised economy as it shows characteristics of both. For example, in internet sectors such as fin- tech and e-commerce, China is already more advanced than some industrialised na- tions. Some sectors such as health care and education, on the other hand, still show characteristics of an emerging economy. Where do you see China’s particular strengths and comparative advantages? In recent decades, China has become the manufacturing base for the world in many areas. The size of the Chinese domes- tic market is helping producers in many in- dustries to achieve economies of scale and leverage this advantage in international competition. Decision-making processes, at both the governmental and corporate levels, are much shorter in China, which leads to higher agility in dealing with challenges and opportunities. Culturally, Chinese people are extremely hardworking and hungry for success. How would you characterise China’s po- tential for innovation in comparison to other countries? China is doing well in consumer and engineering-related fields of innovation. However, it is still lagging behind in some science-driven fields of innovation such as the pharmaceutical industry. China could unleash much higher potential for innova- tion if the country was able to improve its education system or attract world-class tal- ent to work in the country. Would you say the Chinese people are at ease with the rapid changes they have ex- perienced recently? And if so, why? Continuous changes in the past have become ‘normal’ for the Chinese people. Most of the changes have positively influ- enced their lives. Therefore, they are posi- tive about the future in general and expect positive changes to continue to happen. This, however, puts pressure on Chinese leaders. akzente 1/19 37
Background Intercultural bridgebuilders Part partner, part competitor, part opponent – China’s relationship with Germany and Europe is more important than ever. With a network of contacts, GIZ is working to strengthen mutual understanding. By THORSTEN GIEHLER In 2018, China celebrated the 40th anni- versary of its policy of liberalisation. These reforms, initiated by Deng Xiao- ping, paved the way for international insti- tutions to begin operating in the country. GIZ’s predecessor organisations were there from the very beginning. Back then, the fo- cus was on poverty reduction and rural de- velopment. But with China’s impressive de- velopment, the company’s portfolio has fundamentally changed. Today, we work as a service provider in China on behalf of seven federal ministries of the German Government that shape co- operation between Germany and China. GIZ has carved out a good position for itself beyond the development cooperation that ended in 2009. In industrial policy matters, we are working intensively on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Af- fairs and Energy and the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastruc- ture on issues such as intelligent production, automated driving, electro-mobility and product certification. One of the biggest projects is the Legal Cooperation Pro- gramme initiated by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), which is embedded in the German Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection’s German-Chinese di- alogue on the rule of law. By facilitating ex- change between judges and in cooperation with the National People’s Congress, Ger- many can highlight its values and system de- sign and illustrate other ways of operating. In times of climate change, environ- mental and climate cooperation on behalf of We are also increasingly working on behalf of Chinese commissioning parties, a process that involves no German funding. For exam- ple, GIZ is advising Chinese cities on intro- ducing dual vocational training courses. Throughout China, GIZ employs 130 staff, including 90 national personnel. Locally, we see ourselves as a binational company that operates bilingually and interculturally based on a broad network. On both the Chinese and German side, we have a wealth of relia ble contacts, not only in ministries, but also in the private sector and authorities. We see ourselves as bridgebuilders between Ger many and China and between institutions. For, despite the country’s everincreasing im portance at the international level, the scale of exchange between Germany and China and between Europe and China remains rel atively modest. Compared with transatlantic relations, mutual understanding and dia logue are still very limited. With our intergovernmental approach, we aim to generate good results for both China and Germany in the interests of both countries. China is the world’s second largest economy, largest emitter of CO2 and now also an important development actor in Af rica and along the Silk Road: part partner, part competitor, part opponent. That is why it is important to engage in dialogue with this global player. Because, regardless of whether or not we do so, China has an important role to play in global policy development, and it is sensible and necessary to work together to achieve positive results. GIZ provides this platform for Germany and China. And that, in itself, is invaluable. — H C S Z T N E R N A I L U J : N O I T A R T S U L L I THORSTEN GIEHLER GIZ Country Director in China email@example.com the German Federal Ministry for the Envi ronment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety is an important pillar of our work. China is a reliable partner in shaping inter national climate policy. Together, both countries can achieve a great deal. Another important facet is the way in which we ap proach shaping trilateral development coop eration; instead of operating in China, GIZ works with China beyond national borders in this context. The SinoGerman Center for Sustainable Development was opened in May 2017. This BMZ project, with Chinese participation, initiates and coordinates joint projects – with Germany, China and Afri can partner countries. 38 akzente 1/19
Examples of GIZ’s work New approaches and partners China is a country of superlatives. In no other country does GIZ engage in such a wide variety of activities with so many different commissioning parties. Five examples Clear trans- formation China, a developing country just 15 years ago, is now an established global player. And GIZ’s work has changed accordingly. As a partner for sustainable development, GIZ supports China in achieving a balance between economic development, social justice and climate protection. Fur- ther focal points include improving economic relations, supporting the political dialogue of both countries and intercultural mediation. — 2017 GREEN LIGHT The opening of the Sino- German Center for Sustainable Develop- ment in Beijing in May 2017 marked the start of a new chapter in development work. Both countries rely on each other’s strength, with a view to contributing jointly to development in third countries. In Africa, the aim is to create local jobs. — Preparing to meet standards FINANCES The new Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) has tasked GIZ with developing infrastructure projects in Asia. China is the only country in which GIZ works with three major multinational development banks: AIIB, the European Investment Bank and the Asian Develop ment Bank. The projects aim to fulfil criteria for international funding. — Fight against smog ENVIRONMENT Run on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, the project promoting German-Chinese cooperation on sustainable urban development aims to improve air quality and quality of life. GIZ supports interministerial cooperation and organises meetings of mayors from both countries. Municipal teams and architects receive training on climate-adapted urban planning. — Focus on trainees EDUCATION The Chinese Government is seeking to reform its education system using the German dual vocational training system as a model. On behalf of three major cities (Jincheng in central China, Zigong in the south-west and Panjin in the north-east), GIZ is supporting efforts to adapt the German model to local conditions. Training courses are being offered in the field of, for example, mechatronics and geriatric nursing. The latter is a new vocational field in China. Up to now, older people have been cared for by their families. In the highgrowth automotive industry, training partnerships exist with manufacturers such as Audi, Daimler, Porsche and VW. — akzente 1/19 39 Lawyers on the move LAW On behalf of the German Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection, GIZ is supporting German- Chinese dialogue on the rule of law between justice ministers from both countries. This work is flanked by BMZ’s Legal Cooperation Programme. It includes the provision of advice on legislative projects, training for judges and the facilitation of exchange between 11,000 legal practitioners from both countries. —
A BRUSH WITH SUCCESS TRADITIONAL CRAFTWORK Delicate hand-made brooms form a work of art covering the floor of a cooperative in Maozhuang in north-eastern China. The products are in demand all over the world – especially in South Korea and Japan. Exports generate over 20 mil- lion yuan (around USD 3 million) every year. Maozhuang in the province of Hebei is fa- mous for this traditional craft. GIZ has been working on projects in China for several dec- ades. On behalf of the German Federal Government, it has been supporting the country’s ‘open-door’ and reform policies since the 1980s. Photo: picture alliance/Photoshot
Report CRASS Crass, a light-coloured Labrador, relaxes with five-year-old Miroslav. The little boy used to be restless all the time. He couldn’t concentrate or look people in the eye. Thanks to Crass, he has gained confidence and even learned to trust people.
Four-legged therapist FOUR- LEGGED THERAPIST In eastern Ukraine, specially trained dogs are helping to treat disabled children and those traumatised by conflict. TEXT PHILIPP HEDEMANN PHOTOS OLEKSANDR TECHYNSKYI
Report T The labrador clambers carefully over the red, blue and green foam blocks. He keeps turning around to check whether Arina can follow him. If she needs a bit longer to get over the obstacles, he just stands there and waits patiently. Crass is three years old, Arina six. When she was born, she was deprived of oxygen, and ever since she has suf- fered from spasticity. Until recently, she could barely walk, but thanks to Crass things are changing. ‘It’s completely amazing! Arina is making enormous progress. Crass is getting everything out of her,’ says Arina’s mother, Yelena Trofimova, a university lecturer. Crass playing with Arina and psychologist Olga Brashuk The project contributes to these United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): She has come with her daughter to the dog therapy session at a rehabilitation clinic in Mariupol, a port city in eastern Ukraine. The clinic treats children of all ages with motor, cognitive and mental problems. In 2017, the specialist team was joined by Crass, a thera- py dog. Arina is one of eight young patients currently taking part in a pilot project at the clinic. The project, supported by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, was set up to help boys and girls with disabilities. Some of the children have been traumatised by the war in eastern Ukraine. Funding is provided by Germany’s Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. For Arina, the time she spends with Crass is the best 30 minutes in the whole week. Crass jumps up eagerly and barks a greeting when the six-year-old enters the therapy room holding her mother’s hand. Arina smiles and throws her arms around her new friend. Lat- er, as well as following him over the colourful obstacles, she throws him rings and balls, takes him for a walk on the lead and confidently gives him all sorts of instructions, such as ‘Sit!’, ‘Stay!’ and ‘Paw!’ She is delighted when the big dog obeys her every command. At the end of the session, Arina is lying, tired and happy, on the dog’s chest and can feel his heart beating. ‘I love Crass,’ she sighs. ‘Happiness is the best medicine, and Crass brings so much joy into our children’s lives,’ says Olga Brashuk, a qualified psychologist. She explains that all the children who regularly attend sessions with the therapy dog, a dog trainer and Brashuk herself have made tre- mendous progress in terms of their development. That includes Ari- na. ‘My daughter is moving much better, and she has opened up emotionally, too. Her speech has improved a lot, and she is less anx- ious, more confident and relaxed. I’m so grateful that we have been able to take part without having to pay,’ says Trofimova. Arina and her family were selected for the pilot project because Brashuk and 44 akzente 1/19
her colleagues felt that the young girl’s case was particularly urgent and that she would almost certainly benefit from the therapy. The war has left many children traumatised The fact that this method of treatment is available at all in eastern Ukraine is partly due to the dog’s owner, Alexey Birintsev. When he had Crass trained as a search and rescue dog to look for survivors buried under rubble in the aftermath of bomb attacks, he discovered that dogs can also be used to help traumatised victims recover. The war in eastern Ukraine has left many people with physical and men- tal injuries. Fighting has continued just a few kilometres to the east ever since early 2014. The port city is not immune from the war be- tween the Ukrainian army and pro-Russian separatists. Tens of thou- sands have taken refuge there since the conflict began, and you can often hear the sound of fighting along the nearby front. ‘Sadly, many children in Mariupol know what it is like to lose a loved one. So many of them would benefit from trauma therapy with dogs, but until recently there was nothing available here,’ explains Birintsev. ‘The idea of bringing together dog owners and psychologists in eastern Ukraine and creating therapy teams emerged in talks with the Ukrainian Red Cross in Mariupol and the local association of Top: The mutual devotion between six-year-old Arina and the labrador Crass at the therapy session is plain for all to see. Bottom: Alexey Birintsev thought it would be a good idea to train his dog to help young children with their therapy. As the session with Miroslav shows, the results can be quite astonishing. akzente 1/19 45
Four-year-old Alina with her new friend Hillary. When she first started her therapy, the little girl was afraid of everything and everyone. She couldn’t walk and wouldn’t speak. UKRAINE Capital: Kiev / Population: 45 million / GDP per capita: USD 2,640 / Economic growth: 2.5 per cent / Human Development Index ranking: 88 (out of 189) Source: World Bank 2017 Kiev Zaporizhzhya UKRAINE Mariupol The Therapy Dogs project is just one of the initiatives set up as part of a wider infrastructure programme for Ukraine that has already beneﬁted 6.5 million people. The programme has brought about improvements in the quality of educational provision for 40,000 children. Meanwhile, 3.5 million people now have access to more effective municipal services. Contact: René Hingst, firstname.lastname@example.org THE PROJECT IN FIGURES 1,000 children and their families or carers have benefited from the individual and group therapy service. 650 therapy sessions have been held using trained dogs. Before the sessions could begin, 41 psychologists had to complete appro- priate training courses with the dogs and their handlers. dog trainers,’ says GIZ expert Alexander Otto, who oversees the dog therapy programme. So far, 17 dog owners, 18 dogs and 41 psychol- ogists have completed the training course and assessments developed by GIZ together with international and local specialists. ‘People have to be trained and assessed as well as the dogs,’ he adds. Elena Lakhno, a 30-year-old mother of two, also passed the fi- nal assessment with her dog Hillary. A year later, Hillary is lying on a mat in a cosy play room at the child therapy clinic in Zapor- izhzhya, a city in eastern Ukraine. Four-year-old Alina is brushing her white fur. ‘Look, Alina,’ says psychologist Ludmila Bylitko gen- tly. ‘Hillary likes it when you brush her.’ The breakthrough came with dog therapy The children’s welfare office brought Alina to the therapy centre in 2017. At the time, she couldn’t walk. She wouldn’t speak and often banged her head against the side of the bed. She was afraid of every thing and everyone. She didn’t like being touched, trusted no one, cried frequently and couldn’t communicate. Her carers still don’t know what the little girl experienced in the first three years of her life. Both her parents were drug addicts. The welfare office tried var ious therapies but with little success – until Elena Lakhno came 46 akzente 1/19
‘Since Alina started cuddling and playing with Hillary, she has allowed people to get closer to her as well.’ LUDMILA BYLITKO, a psychologist at the children’s therapy clinic For more information about the remarkable success of this pilot project in eastern Ukraine, see the video on the akzente website: akzente.giz.de/en along with her Samoyed, Hillary. Samoyeds are a Nordic breed. They have been used for many years to pull sledges and as herding dogs. Alina was a bit afraid when she was first introduced to Hillary, but during the second visit the little girl finally began to open up to her therapists through interaction with Hillary. ‘Since she started cuddling and playing with Hillary, she has al- lowed people to get closer to her as well. The dog stimulates every part of her brain. That explains why Alina is making such good pro- gress with her motor skills. She even interacts now with other chil- dren. She’s more confident, calmer and no longer exhibits auto-ag- gressive behaviour,’ observes Bylitko. ‘Perhaps we would have got there eventually even without a therapy dog, but certainly not in such a short time.’ Since she learned how to help people, Hillary has completely changed not just Alina’s life but that of her owner, too. ‘Obviously, dogs can’t diagnose what is wrong with a person or provide therapy on their own. They’ll never be able to replace psychologists. But dogs and humans can make a great team and achieve tremendous results very quickly,’ says Lakhno. She comes with Hillary once a week to the therapy sessions in the play room. A course of dog therapy gen- erally lasts several months but may be shorter or longer depending on the child’s needs. akzente 1/19 47 Lakhno was so amazed and excited to see the progress made by the children after just a few sessions with Hillary that she has decided to study psychology part-time while continuing to work for now as a hairdresser. Once she completes the course, she hopes to make a ca- reer out of the work she currently performs as a volunteer. ‘I hope that will encourage other owners to train their dogs in the same way,’ she concludes. ’There are so many young boys and girls in eastern Ukraine who could benefit.’ — As a freelance journalist, PHILIPP HEDEMANN has reported from over 20 countries – on many occasions from Ukraine. OLEKSANDR TECHYNSKYI is a Ukrainian photographer and ﬁlm-maker. His work includes a video record of the Maidan protests in Kiev.
Report A PROMISING HARVEST Cocoa is an important product in western and central Africa. Together with various partners, GIZ has developed a training programme to help smallholders farm their land sustainably. We invited four of those involved in the programme to explain how the Farmer Business School (FBS) initiative has improved people’s livelihoods in Nigeria. TEXT AND PHOTOS KATRIN GÄNSLER
A promising harvest ‘We invest the profits in our children’s future.’ KARIM AZEES (35) and his wife cultivate four hectares of land in Afolu Ise, which is located in the federal state of Ekiti in south-western Nigeria. As a child I spent a lot of time in my father’s fields and his woodland. I usually went to find him as soon as school finished. Even back then he was growing cocoa. It was always taken for granted that I would run the farm when he was no long er with us. My brothers and sisters have also be come farmers. Until I went to a Farmer Business School in 2014, I learned everything from my father. At the school, I re alised how important it is to build a strong foundation of knowledge. I learned a lot, and I started to plant new cocoa trees regularly and cut back the old ones. There are only two or three fruits on those old trees, and the yield is around 300 kilograms per hectare. I plan to replace them gradually using hybrid varieties. These are bred by crossing two highyielding parents. The idea is that the offspring inherit their positive characteristics. The first of these new plants are already burst- ing with fruit, so I expect to double the crop. I have also learned how important it is to leave the correct distance be- tween each tree and why it makes sense to grow other crops as well as cocoa. I have planted manioc, kola trees and oil palms. Step by step I am transforming the land into a modern busi- ness. My wife and I have invested our initial profits in the fu- ture of our four children, who are aged between one and 15. We want them to have a good education. We decided to send them to private schools. That costs 126,000 naira (around EUR 300) a year. Over half of that goes on my eldest daugh- ter's school fees. Without the Farmer Business School, we would not have been able to make that important invest- ment.’ — akzente 1/19 49
Report ‘Without knowledge, farmers can ‘We aim to reduce the amount of end up paying a heavy price.’ chemicals we use by working ‘I studied agricultural sciences because I like being outdoors. It also means I get to work with farmers. No country can survive without food, and that all comes from farming businesses. Unfor- tunately, my studies at the Federal University of Technology in Akure in south-western Nigeria were very theoretical. After gradu- ating, I was unemployed for a while. Then, in 2017, I got a place on a government programme for young academics called nPower Agro. Together with seven other students from Ondo State, I qualified as a trainer for the Farmer Business Schools. We learned how to teach farmers about cultivation methods, business skills and healthy eating for the whole family. To begin with, I just sat in the classroom and observed experienced trainers. now I work as a teacher myself. I really enjoy it. I’m more confident and I’m better at communicating. I’ve also learned how important adult education is in nigeria and how to teach adults. There are lots of things farmers need to know so that they can grow highquality products. Without that knowledge, they can end up paying a heavy price – poor crops, for example. At the same time, I learn from the farmers. I see myself as a facilitator, helping people to ex change knowledge, rather than as a normal teacher. My future ca reer will involve advising farmers. There are 18 local government areas in Ondo State, but only 11 of them have a Farmer Business School. So there is still a lot to do.’ — FADEKE OMOLABAKE ADEOyE (33) is an agricultural scientist and FBS trainer in Nigeria. more precisely.’ ‘The Farmer Business School helped us to understand that as farmers we are stronger and can achieve more if we join forces. Over the last few years, six cooperatives have been set up in our village, Kajola in western nigeria. Each one has between 30 and 35 members. In 2016, we decided to open an agro shop, and we set up a committee. I am the chairperson. I am in the shop every day between 8 and 10 o’clock in the morning and again between 4 and 6 o’clock in the afternoon. I sell fertiliser and products to help farmers pro tect their plants. It’s much easier for farmers now. Before we opened the shop, they had to travel all the way to Akure or AdoEkiti, the provincial capitals, to buy these things. The roads are poor, and the journey takes over two hours. The shop saves them a lot of time and above all money. We ar range transport together, and because we can buy what we need in larger quantities we can sell it more cheaply, too. One of the products we sell is used to prevent black rot, a fungal disease that can cause a great deal of dam age. If a fruit is attacked by the disease, it gradually turns black. We sell the black rot treatment for 5,200 naira (EUR 12.50). That’s 400 or 500 naira less than it costs elsewhere. However, the farmers don’t end up using more fertiliser and pesticides just because they can buy it at the agroshop. In fact, the opposite is true. We have learned to measure out our land precisely and prune our trees. That means we can use exactly the right amount of fertilis er. I can tell you from my own experience as a cocoa grower. By working more precisely I use fewer chemicals. That allows us to produce more and betterquality cocoa.’ — SESAN BAMIGBOyE (49) is a cocoa grower and chair of the committee for the agro-shop in the village of Kajola in Ekiti State. 50 akzente 1/19
A promising harvest FINDING WAyS OUT OF DESPERATE POVERTy Western and central Africa produce over 70 per cent of all the world’s cocoa. Also known as ‘brown gold’, cocoa is the most important source of income for over two million smallholders. However, world market prices ﬂuctuate con- siderably and have dropped from USD 5,000 per metric ton in 1980 to around USD 2,300 in early 2019. For smallhold- ers that is barely enough to survive on. On average, they have to live off less than USD 2 per person per day. A pro- gramme entitled Sustainable Smallholder Agri-Business in Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Togo has paved the way for one possible route out of poverty. GIZ has been commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development to implement the initiative together with over 50 international and local partners in Africa. Farmer Business Schools (FBS) are at the heart of the programme. The schools teach farmers how to produce cocoa and other basic foods more efﬁciently. In turn, this enables them to earn more money from their crops. The programme’s business service centres can supply seeds, fer- tiliser, herbicides, pesticides and expert advice, as well as putting farmers in touch with lenders and providing market information. Farmers also learn how to generate other sources of income. The lessons learned are put to good use in 21 other German development cooperation programmes in Africa. The take-up has been impressive, and in 2018 a pan-African master trainer programme was launched to meet the demand for FBS courses. — Contact: Annemarie Matthess, email@example.com www.ssab-africa.net THE PROJECT IN FIGURES 1.1 million smallholders in 19 African countries have completed a training course with the Farmer Business School programme. One third of the 300,000 FBS trainees in Nigeria were women. The project contributes to these United Nations Sus- tainable Development Goals (SDGs): ‘Nowadays, farmers can oﬀer services as well.’ ‘I work for the Agricultural Development Programme run by the Ministry of Agriculture in Ekiti State. In 2013, I was chosen to at- tend a course for agricultural trainers. To begin with, I was sceptical, because I had already attended several courses. This time, however, I quickly realised that the course was different. It was very wide-rang- ing and challenging. It lasted nearly three weeks. As well as attending lessons, we had to solve group tasks and submit exercises. On several occasions, I had to carry on working until one o’clock at night. Since the end of the course, I have trained 320 female farmers and 621 male farmers on three different programmes. The atmosphere is friendly. Sometimes I’m asked for advice on personal matters, too. What I particularly like is seeing people come up with their own ideas once they complete the training. To give you an example, one group in the village of Kajola set up a small mill to process their palm oil fruit. We encourage farmers to grow other crops as well as cocoa. That creates new agricultural markets, and it means that cooperatives can offer services as well – large-scale pest eradication, for example, or advising other farmers. Even I have improved my budgeting sys- tem. I never used to bother keeping accounts, but now I keep a care- ful record of my income and expenditure. That way I have been able to set up my own manioc and maize farm. I used my first profits to buy a car. It’s not a luxury, though. It makes it easier for me to deliver training courses in more remote villages.’ — OLUBUNMI AJAYI (43) is a trainer with three diﬀerent programmes – Farmer Business School, Good Agricultural Practice and Cooperative Business School. akzente 1/19 51
Info EDITOR’S Digital Picks Don’t look away! MULTIMEDIA Sexual harassment is a con- stant danger for women and girls using local public transport in Sri Lanka. The issue is highlighted in a harrowing report by the UN Population Fund, which has put together a series of personal testimonies under the title ‘16 Days, 16 Stories’. — www.unfpa.org/16-stories Saving the world in small steps PODCAST The Guardian proﬁles some inspiring people in its series ‘Small Changes’. In the ﬁght against corruption and sexual violence and the struggle for better health care and education, these creative and surprising ideas show how small changes can act as a springboard for big improvements. — www.theguardian.com/podcasts Search: Small Changes Shared future REPORT Technology will fundamentally change the structure of our society. In a report entitled ‘Our Shared Digital Future’, the World Economic Forum explores what lies ahead in our digitalised world. Experts from industry, the research sector and politics deﬁne six joint goals. Rather than offering simple answers, the publication sees itself as the starting point for a discussion about our future. — www.weforum.org/reports At the threshold A clearer view DOSSIER Automation and artiﬁcial intelligence are revolutionising the world of work. What are the ethical, social and political implications? The Goethe-Institut in Canada tackles these issues together with the concept of post-humanism in a dossier entitled ‘At the Threshold of a New Era’. The dossier spans a wide and diverse range of subjects from artiﬁcial intelligence and art, ethics for machines and fundamental digital rights through to algorithms and freedom of choice. — PORTAL The Films for the Earth network offers the world’s most comprehensive directory of ﬁlms covering every aspect of sustainability. The site includes documentaries on ecology, nature and conservation, many of which can be viewed free online. Since 2011, the association has also organised an international ﬁlm festival which is held simultaneously in several cities. Through its events and advisory work, the network aims to inspire, amaze, create awareness and move people to action. — www.goethe.de/ins/ca/en/kul/cfo/phm.html ﬁlmsfortheearth.org/en 52 akzente 1/19
Info GOOD READS from around the world ONE PART WOMAN Southern India, 1946: Kali and Poona have been married for years but remain childless. Both are taunted by their fam- ily and neighbours. Eventually they believe there is only one option left to them. Poona agrees that she will sleep with another man in the form of a god during a religious festival. This is a radical and poetic novel that boldly and forthrightly addresses local traditions and customs. — Claudia Kramatschek Perumal Murugan, India. Translated from Tamil by Aniruddhan Vasudevan. Grove Press, Black Cat, 256 pages EL MISERERE DE LOS COCODRILOS A childhood trauma turns into a psychological thriller. Little Úrsula has a food addiction. One day her father catches her. Ignoring what he says are just ‘crocodile tears’, he locks her in. But Úrsula is bent on revenge, and in Montevideo she comes across an absurd gang of criminals. The book plays on the theme of mistaken identity in the same way as a comedy. The reader is drawn into the whole construct with a nod and a wink. The result is a hilarious crime thriller. — C. Kramatschek, literary critic Mercedes Rosende, Uruguay. In Spanish. Casa Editorial HUM, 228 pages LITPROM RECOMMENDS Litprom – the Society for the Promotion of African, Asian and Latin American Literature – pro- vided these reviews for akzente. The titles were selected from Litprom’s list of the best new releases. www.litprom.de/en THE BORROWED A chronicle of underworld activ- ity in Hong Kong from 1967 to 2013. Formally sophisticated, ‘The Borrowed’ is a panoramic crime thriller in six parts that creates a social and historical panorama of Hong Kong over the period, thus repurposing the dialectic style of a traditional European narrative form. The book explores the neuralgic issues of politics, the triads and corruption from the outside and the inside. A real tour de force. — Thomas Wörtche, cultural journalist Chan Ho-kei, Hong Kong. Translated by Jeremy Tiang. Grove Press, Black Cat, 496 pages akzente 1/19 53 My ENEMy’S CHERRy TREE The author’s debut novel tells the story of a young man whose pursuit of happiness ends in tragedy. While it may seem apolitical, this delicate and tightly woven novel of marital estrangement explores the harsh reality of social inequality and its manifestations and conse- quences. — Insa Wilke, literary critic Wang Ting-Kuo, Taiwan. Translated from Chinese by Howard Goldblatt and Sylvia Li-chun Lin. Granta Books, 272 pages
Introducing From: Frank-Uwe Abresch To: ★ all akzente readers Greetings from a construction expert Today, 12:07 Hello from Dohuk! I’ve been living and working in northern Iraq since mid-2016. Right now, over six million people need humanitarian assistance here. They are either refugees or affected in some way by the huge flows of people who have been displaced. Drinking water is scarce, especially in the hot, dry summers. I’m leading a project to build a large water distribu- tion network on behalf of Germany’s Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. The network will provide enough water for local communities and refugee camps. The actual construction work is done by local building firms. I trained as an engineer in utility supplies and energy systems. Apart from a short break, I’ve been working for GIZ since 2005. Before that, I was in Afghanistan, Ethiopia and South Sudan. For me, there is no real difference when you work in a crisis-hit region such as Iraq. You do the planning, start building and deal with problems as they arise – usually straight away. That’s how it is everywhere. To give you an example, we’re building a water treatment system that involves laying an 18-kilometre pipeline. While we were digging, we got a bit of a surprise. We came across an area that contained archaeological remains: a water network with drawings that showed the Assyrian king Sennacherib from around 700 BCE. You just can’t ignore things like that any more than you could in Germany. But that unpredictability is exactly what I like about my job. Of course, lots of things are different when you are in a crisis region. For example, we have to check whether there are any explosive devices at the site every time before we start digging or building. Apart from that, I can move around freely. I drive a normal car and within Dohuk I can take any road that’s available. GIZ’s risk management office keeps a careful eye on the security situation. Sure, Iraq isn’t a family-friendly location for assignments. At the moment I have a long- distance relationship with my wife. I fly home to Berlin every two months at least. In Dohuk, I live in shared accommodation. In my free time, I listen to music a lot and read. There are lots of restaurants, so I don’t often cook for myself. I’d say you need a great deal of patience and flexibility to do a job like this in a place like this. You have to plan more carefully and at the same time be flexible enough to find al- ternative solutions at short notice if it becomes necessary. All the best, Frank-Uwe Abresch GIZ is always looking for experts for its projects. Why not visit our ‘Jobs and careers’ page: www.giz.de/careers 54 akzente 1/19
SUSTAINABILITy A look back at a project and its results Project: TheIntegrityApp (from the GIZ Innovation Fund) / Commis- sioned by: GIZ / Term: ongoing / Countries where the app is used: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ghana, Indonesia, Mexico STARTING POINT RESULTS GIZ’s Innovation Fund was set up to promote digitalisation, provide scope for creativity and cultivate agile working methods. Over 250 ideas were submitted from 65 countries when the ideas competition was piloted in 2017. One of those was TheIntegrityApp. The app was developed by a team at the Alli- ance for Integrity. The challenge they wanted to address was how small and medium- sized enterprises (SMEs) and the public sector can equip themselves better in the ﬁght against corruption. In many cases, these organisations lack the knowledge and qual- iﬁed personnel needed to provide effective protection. Thanks to the mobile app and online platform, SMEs can assess their own particular situation. If the self-evaluation shows that more needs to be done, the company can acquire the expertise needed – for example to set up an internal compli- ance programme – through a range of webi- nars, podcasts and videos. It can then repeat the self-evaluation and make further im- provements as required. Just one year after the app was launched, 1,000 companies all over the world are al- ready using it. What’s more, the develop- ment team was subsequently commissioned by Brazil’s Federal Minister for Transpar- ency, Supervision and Control to adapt it for the public sector. Since the ‘government agency’ version was launched in June 2018, over 350 employees in the federal adminis- tration now work with TheIntegrityApp. They can use it to check their knowledge of the anti-corruption regulations and undergo fur- ther training if needed. But the app’s suc- cess story doesn’t stop there. The Chilean Government and the city authorities in Bue- nos Aires (Argentina) have ofﬁcially re- quested permission to use the app in their own administrations. With so much positive feedback and so many great ideas, GIZ’s In- novation Fund is now gearing up for a third round of its ideas competition in 2019. AKZENTE Publisher: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Registered offices: Bonn and Eschborn, Germany Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 36 + 40, 53113 Bonn, Germany T +49 228 44 60 0 F +49 228 44 60-17 66 Dag-Hammarskjöld-Weg 1-5, 65760 Eschborn, Germany T +49 61 96 79-0 F +49 61 96 79-11 15 E firstname.lastname@example.org I akzente.giz.de/en Responsible: Sabine Tonscheidt, Director of Corporate Communications (GIZ) Content concept and editing: GIZ: Nicole Annette Müller (editor), Miriam Droller FAZIT Communication GmbH: Sabrina Pfost (project management), Friederike Bauer, Judith Reker, Brigitte Spitz, Oliver Hick-Schulz (layout), Martin Gorka (infographics), Corinna Potthoff (photo editing) English translation: Lynne Brauer, Jodie McGilvary, Mitzi Morgan, David Tonge; Gillian Lester (GIZ Language Services) Proofreading: textschrittmacher Graphic design/lithography: FAZIT Communication GmbH URL links: Where links are included to external sites, responsibility for the content of these sites lies solely with the provider. GIZ explicitly disassociates itself from all such content. Maps: GIZ/Ira Olaleye The maps are for information purposes only and do not constitute recognition under international law of bounda- ries and territories. GIZ provides no assurance that these maps are up-to-date, correct or complete and accepts no responsibility for loss or damage arising directly or indirectly from their use. GIZ is responsible for the content of this publication. Articles by individual authors do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the publisher. Cover photo: VCG via Getty Images All images: GIZ unless otherwise stated Copy deadline: February 2019 Published: three times a year Current issue: March 2019 Printed by: Druckerei Lokay e. K., Reinheim, Germany Printed on: Arctic Volume, certified to FSC standards ISSN: 0945-4497 You can subscribe to akzente free of charge as a printed magazine or as a pdf by sending your email or postal address to: email@example.com. You can unsubscribe using the same address. More information on the competition and the app: firstname.lastname@example.org www.theintegrityapp.com akzente has received several awards for its high-quality journalism and design. In 2018, it won the Best of Content Marketing Award in silver in the crossmedia and website categories. akzente 1/19 55
China [ˈchī-nə] is a country in East Asia. The name is derived from the Sanskrit word cīna, which dates back to the time of the Qin dynasty. It was under the Qin princes that China was united in 221 BCE and became an empire. The word ‘China’ does not actually exist in the Chinese language. The Chinese themselves call their country Zhong Guo, which means ‘Middle Kingdom’. As a service provider with worldwide operations in the fields of interna- tional cooperation for sustainable development and international education, GIZ works with its partners to develop effective solutions that offer people better prospects and sustainably improve their living conditions. GIZ is a public-benefit federal enterprise and supports the German Government and a host of public and private sector clients in a wide variety of areas, including economic development and employment promotion, energy and the environment, and peace and security.