akzente The GIZ Magazine 3/2018 A new life Prospects for people in northern Iraq On the right track Reforming police work in Africa Strong towns More rights for municipalities in Ukraine Employment The value of work
Faces and stories MORE TRANSPARENT SMALL PRINT RICHARD HENRY KIMERA He speaks up for those who are rarely heard in Uganda – consumers. You can ﬁnd more ‘Faces & Stories’ online at www.giz.de/stories Scan the code with your smartphone to watch the video.
Editorial EMPLOYMENT KEEPS US OCCUPIED Work means more than income. innovative and to feel needed. That’s been Mohammad Mahmood Ibrahim’s expe- rience. An Iraqi national, he was a Pesh- merga fighter but had virtually given up af- ter being injured in the war. It is a huge challenge to start afresh in a crisis zone. ‘Despair doesn’t come close to describing how I felt,’ he says. But with international support, he has been able to open a small shop in Erbil, enabling him to make a new start. And, he adds, the shop has been a sal- vation for him and his family and has re- stored meaning to his life. EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES for combating youth unemployment are the focus of a re- port from Tunisia. An alliance of private and public sector stakeholders has been building up the skills needed for the labour market and creating prospects within the country. Garment worker Salem Fadhloun is enthusiastic: ‘There is now no reason for me to risk my life trying to get somewhere else,’ he says. He speaks for many other young people, too. ONE FIGURE in this issue relating to the situation of youth around the world re- ally got me thinking: roughly one third of young people in both Albania and South Africa have no occupation. They are not attending school, have no other kind of training – nor are they earning an income. That figure is around five times higher than for Germany. So I wonder – what is occu- pying your mind? IN OUR CULTURE, the phrase ‘I’m occu- pied’ generally means ‘I’m busy, I have things to do – please do not disturb!’ But it can also mean ‘I’ve got a job’, ‘I’m em- ployed’. And saying that something is ‘oc- cupying’ my mind means that I am pon- dering over that particular issue. The term ‘occupation’, which is partially synony- mous with ‘employment’, has many differ- ent connotations. THAT BECAME CLEAR to us when we were planning this issue of akzente. How could we do justice to all these shades of meaning, given the constraints on space? Eventually, we decided to focus on employment and oc- cupations in the sense of jobs and work – and specifically on work that generates an income. This is, after all, the form of occu- pation that tops the agenda in our partner countries, because it creates prospects for in- dividuals to escape poverty. BUT JOBS ARE in short supply in virtually every country around the world, particu- larly secure and appropriately paid work. The official figure for those in precarious employment has risen over recent years to around 1.4 billion people. Meanwhile, digi- talisation has the capacity to reduce job op- portunities even more or to transform them radically, as machines decide when crops are ready for harvest, computers perform bank- ing transactions and robots take over do- mestic work. World Bank economist David Robalino from Ecuador reflects on how to tackle the global employment crisis in our essay. YET WORK does far more than merely pro- vide us with an income. It structures our time and enables us to be productive and ) 3 E G A P ( L E G O V A I R A M / N E F A R G O T O F F O H E I D : O T O H P akzente 3/18 3 SABINE TONSCHEIDT, Director of Corporate Communications firstname.lastname@example.org
Contents IN FOCUS: EMPLOYMENT The value of work Work is the best way of combating poverty, yet more than one billion people around the world have no job or are underem- ployed. What does this mean? And how can we change things? L A I R O T I D E REPORT Learning for life Opportunities for young people in Tunisia p. 18 OVERVIEW The multifaceted working world The diverse world of employment p. 22 ESSAY New ways to tackle the jobs crisis By David Robalino from the World Bank p. 24 INFOGRAPHIC A long way to go The extent of precarious employment and more p. 30 INTERVIEW ‘Skills and loans are essential’ With Onyeche Tifase from Siemens Nigeria p. 32 BACKGROUND Our job: to promote decent work How GIZ fosters employment. p. 34 EXAMPLES OF GIZ’S WORK Jobs, jobs, jobs Five success stories p. 35 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 NEWS Africa in the director’s chair A film partnership, other new projects, and interesting facts and figures about global development p. 6 REPORT Building up hope Simple ideas – such as running a small shop – are turning around the lives of refugees and local people in northern Iraq following the end of terror in the country. p. 10 4 akzente 3/18 ) T H G I R , 4 . P ( T D N A R B - N A W H C S N A I B A F , ) T F E L , 4 . P ( S M L I F Y A D E N I F E N O , ) E V O B A , 4 . . P ( T E N K E H T O T O H P / O M I S A M O H T : S O T O H P
Contents SNAPSHOT Europe, here we come! A picture from Kosovo symbolises creativity and a new beginning. p. 36 PERSPECTIVES On the right track Reforming police work in Africa p. 44 E T N E Z K A , Y T I L I B A N I A T S U S O F N I 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 INTRODUCING Greetings from New Delhi Winfried Damm heads the Indo-German Energy Programme. p. 50 REPORT On course for a better future Local authorities in Ukraine can now decide how they spend their money themselves. p. 38 DIGITAL AKZENTE Our magazine is also available online in an optimised form for mo- bile devices. akzente.giz.de/en akzente The GIZ Magazine 3/2018 A new life Prospects for people in northern Iraq On the right track Reforming police work in Africa Strong towns More rights for municipalities in Ukraine Employment The value of work akzente 3/18 5 ) . R M O T T O B , 5 . P ( R A M U K P E E D A R P , ) . L M O T T O B , 5 . P ( I Y K S N Y H C E T R D N A X E L O , ) . R E V O B A , 5 . P ( O B G N A N Y R R E I H T , ) . L E V O B A , 5 . P ( A K E R / S R E T U E R : S O T O H P
IN FIGURES 0 520 new cases of malaria have been reported by Paraguay over the last three years. This means that the country is considered to be free of the disease. The last country in the Americas to be declared malaria-free was Cuba in 1973. However, 216 million people around the world were still suffering from malaria in 2016. www.who.int billion USD less is spent each year on things like energy and food as a conse- quence of natural disasters. A fundamental improvement in the situation of poor people could also help mitigate the economic impact of natural disasters. www.worldbank.org264million children and young people of school age are not receiving education. The figures for primary school children have not improved since 2008. Not even one country in five offers free compulsory education for 12 years. www.unesco.org News Films out of Africa PARTNERING WITH DEUTSCHE WELLE The award-winning Kenyan film ‘Supa Modo’ is the sixth African film to be produced by German broadcaster Deutsche Welle Akademie and production company One Fine Day Films. Deutsche Welle is training African film- makers to enable them to compete on the global market. GIZ is supporting the training courses on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Eco- nomic Cooperation and Development. More than 1,000 film-makers have already taken part. ‘Supa Modo’ was screened at the Berlin International Film Festival, among other venues. www.dw.com 6 akzente 3/18
‘As long as there are wars and THREE QUESTIONS FOR persecution, there will be refugees. … Their story is one of resilience, persever- ance and courage. Ours must be one of solidarity, compassion and action.’ UN Secretary-General ANTóNIO GUTERRES on World Refugee Day 2018 The 26-year-old Rwandan is a graduate of the JOSIANE ABONIyO Driving innovation Pan African University – Institute of Water and Energy Sciences (including Climate Change), PAUWES. Based in Algeria, PAUWES is one of five African institutes of the Pan African University, each with a specific focus. GIZ supported the development and creation of PAUWES. What did you study at PAUWES? I already had a Bachelor’s degree from Tanzania in en- vironmental studies and environmental protection, spe- cialising in water. At PAUWES, I took a Master’s in Wa- ter Governance. The Institute is the only one in Africa to offer this course. And the topic was exactly what I was looking for. For example, I wanted to learn more about how academic expertise can be translated into policy. How easy was it to apply – and how was the course? I was among the second cohort, and there were 1,000 applicants for just 42 places. There are even more ap- plicants now, because PAUWES is becoming better known all the time. I think the fact that I had already lived abroad and had some initial professional experi- ence working for an environmental management agency helped me. Our teachers were experts from around the world. We also completed a number of placements dur- ing the two-year course. And what are you doing now? One of my placements was with the International Fund for Agricultural Development in Rome. It went very well, so I applied for a job there. I really hope I get it. ) 7 E G A P ( H C S Z T N E R N A I L U J : N O I T A R T S U L L I , ) 7 E G A P ( N E M O W E Z I L I B O M N E M O W , ) 6 E G A P ( S M L I F Y A D E N I F E N O : S O T O H P WOMEN AND TRANSPORT Mechanic, bus driver, manager – very few women occupy these positions in the transport sector, where just one employee in five is female. To address this male-dominated state of affairs, 200 women from 42 countries met in the German city of Leipzig. The ‘Wom- en Mobilize Women’ conference offered them a chance to network and share expe- riences. The 22 high-profile female speak- ers emphasised the importance of having a higher proportion of women in such roles. For example, women in senior roles are often able to shape transport innova- tively and sustainably. GIZ organised the conference on behalf of the German Fed- eral Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. www.womenmobilize.org www.giz.de/en/worldwide/26267.html akzente 3/18 7
News Advice centres in demand JOBS AND MIGRATION Advice centres are pro- viding information about regional job opportu- nities and potential employment in Germany. On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), GIZ has now set up advice centres in eight countries. These centres are aimed at re- turnees seeking to regain a foothold on their home country’s labour market and at the local population. The staff provide information about work opportunities in applicants’ home coun- tries and possibilities for regular migration to Eu- rope. They also offer support for start-ups. The centres are run in cooperation with national em- ployment agencies. The first centre was set up in Kosovo in 2015, and sites in Albania and Serbia followed in 2016. Since 2017, centres have been operating in Ghana, Morocco and Tunisia, with two more opening in 2018, in Senegal and northern Iraq, and a further location planned for Nigeria. In Af- ghanistan, advisory services are provided in coop- eration with the International Organization for Migration (IOM). The services the centres offer are in demand. A total of 40,000 consultations have taken place so far, of which almost 3,000 were with returnees. Furthermore, 10,000 indi- viduals have taken part in training in job applica- tion techniques organised by the advisors. The centres have reached over 70,000 people through job and careers fairs and information events. The centres also arrange participation in training and guidance on setting up a business. 100,000 returnees and locals have explored these opportunities to make a new start, and 4,000 have found a job. As part of BMZ’s Re- turning to New Opportunities programme, the range of activities of projects being implement- ed by GIZ in the countries concerned has been expanded. www.giz.de/en/workingwithgiz/68352.html Lots of room for improvement IN COMPARISON Many young people aged between 15 and 24 around the world are not employed, nor in education or training. This percentage of a country’s youth is a key indicator of sustainable economic growth. 6.2% GERMANY 30.5% 32.8% SOUTH AFRICA ALBANIA Source: World Economic Forum ‘The Global Human Capital Report 2017’ Digital change in Ghana RE:PUBLICA CONFERENCE re:publica is one of the world’s leading confer- ences dealing with the digital society and the internet. It has been held annually in Berlin since 2007. At the end of this year, Africa – the continent with the youngest and most rapidly growing population – will host its first re:publica conference. Digital technolo- gies will be the key to Africa’s future, so it is important to show what prospects digitalisation can create on the ground. GIZ is therefore working on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Develop- ment to support re:publica GmbH in staging this digital festival in West Africa, specifically in the Ghanaian capital Accra. The objective is to strengthen dialogue on digital topics between Germany and Africa. The event is also intended to encourage more intensive use of the potential of digitalisation in international cooperation. www.re-publica.com/en 8 akzente 3/18
Skilled care professionals TRAINING Germany faces a shortage of care workers: by 2030, the country will need more than 200,000 staff to care for older people alone. On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, GIZ has been coordinating a programme since 2013 to enable qualified carers from Viet Nam to train in German hospitals and aged-care facilities. Viet Nam has a surplus of care workers, so the scheme meets WHO standards. The Vietnam- ese Ministry of Labour supports the approach, because remittances from care workers abroad help families back home. GIZ organises the selection and placement of participants with employers. 200 Vietnamese nationals have al- ready completed training in caring for the elderly in Germany. 80 nursing trainees came to Germany in late 2017, and a further 80 will be arriving to- wards the end of 2018. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/40207.html NEW PROJECTS vIET NAm WIKI Official language: Vietnamese / Capital: Hanoi / Form of government: One-party system / Head of state: Tran Dai Quang / Head of government: Nguyen Xuan Phuc / Size: 332,800 km2 / Population: approx. 95.5 million (1) / Population density: 308/km2 (2) / GDP per capita: USD 2,343 (3) VIET NAM Hanoi Sources: (1, 2) UN Data 2017, (3) World Bank 2016 Careers in Tunisia Tourism in Rwanda G20 and climate change UNIVERSITIES Students and graduates of Tunisian universities lack both job oppor- tunities and technical skills. Working on behalf of the German federal state of Ba- varia, GIZ is therefore supporting Tunisia’s Ministry of Higher Education and Scien- tific Research in setting up careers advice centres in selected universities and de- veloping training courses for students. GIZ is also promoting cooperation between private sector companies from Bavaria and Tunisian universities. TRAINING By 2020, Rwanda is aiming to become a middle-income country (defined as having per capita GNP of between USD 1,046 and USD 12,745). The Mastercard Foundation has commissioned GIZ Inter- national Services to improve the country’s hotel and tourism sector through initial and continuing training. In cooperation with the relevant national agencies, GIZ is also supporting the introduction of inter- national quality standards and certifica- tion. KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER GIZ is supporting ma- jor economies in implementing the Paris Agreement. The commissioning parties are the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the EU. The focus is on 15 G20 countries that are outside the EU, including China, Saudi Arabia and the USA. The objective is to pro- mote exchange between these countries and the EU to enhance knowledge on good prac- tices in climate change mitigation and adap- tation. The initiative will also improve the environment for cooperation and investment. akzente 3/18 9 ) T H G I R , 9 E G A P ( H C S A A H D E I R F G E I S / S E G A M I Y T T E G , ) E L D D I M , 9 E G A P ( S E G A M I Y T T E G A I V T E K C O R T H G I L / R E L H E A K G N A G F L O W , ) T F E L , 9 E G A P ( F I A L / T O L E S S U O R N N A H O J , ) 8 E G A P ( A C I L B U P E R / R E H C S I F R O G E R G : S O T O H P
Report BUILDING UP HOPE Following the war against the so-called Islamic State terrorist militia, northern Iraq is having to provide for millions of people who sought refuge there. This is a huge challenge given the prevailing economic crisis. Some- times, though, just a modest idea is all it takes to turn around the lives of refugees and the local population. TEXT GABRIELE RZEPKA PHOTOS FABIAN SCHWAN-BRANDT
Report I It was a bright, sunny day in May 2016 in a small settlement near Kirkuk in northern Iraq. But that was when Mohammad Mahmood Ibra- him’s previous life came to an abrupt end. Along with six other Peshmerga fighters, he stumbled on a mine left by the terrorist organisation Is- lamic State (IS). Photographs of the site of the explosion show him lying lifeless on the ground, half his face blackened and plastered in blood, powder and dust. The rest of his troop rushed to his assistance and initially believed he was dead. Then the medics saw that he was still alive. The blast had killed five of his comrades; a sixth was also seriously injured. Ibrahim spent weeks in various hospitals, where his injuries slowly healed. But nobody could give him back the eye he had lost or relieve his constant pain. The young Kurd realised that his own future and that of his family was in ruins: ‘Five of my friends were blown to pieces before my eyes,’ he says, ‘And I came home with severe, permanent injuries, no longer able to do my job as a construction worker. Despair doesn’t come close to describing how I felt.’ Ibrahim’s parents and his wife Gazung Nahro Mustafa used their savings to ensure the 26-year- old got the best possible medical care, paying out of their own pockets for medicines and opera- tions in a private eye hospital. The money did not last long, though. Gazung Mustafa had no idea how she was going to cope: ‘I tried to survive on my husband’s war pension,’ she says, ‘but I would not have managed without the help of my in-laws.’ Mean- while, the situation at home was becoming more unbearable by the day for Ibrahim. Continuing financial worries and his uncertainty whether he would ever be able to work again because of his injuries gnawed away at him. ‘Mostly he just lay in front of the TV in the liv- ing room all day and didn’t budge,’ his wife recalls. ‘They were dark days for us all.’ The turning point came when Ibrahim set up a small shop sell- ing household goods in September 2017. The shop is in the Bnasla- wa district of Erbil, right opposite the town hall. And business is brisk: he earns between 250,000 and 450,000 dinars a month net – equivalent to between EUR 180 and EUR 330. By contrast, he only 12 akzente 3/18 Mohammad Mahmood Ibrahim had almost given up after being severely injured in the war. Now, he runs his own shop in Erbil and can smile again. Also on the akzente website: a video interview with another Peshmerga veteran describing his new life. akzente.giz.de/en
Building up hope Ibrahim’s wife Gazung Nahro Mustafa was really worried about her husband and what the future held for their family of four: ‘They were dark days for us all.’ receives a small war pension from the Ministry of Peshmerga Affairs as the autonomous region of Kurdistan is in the midst of a severe economic crisis. The years of struggle against IS and the need to cope with millions of refugees and internally displaced persons have drained the state’s coffers. The Ministry of Peshmerga Affairs there- fore particularly welcomed the opportunity to help disabled war vet- erans make a new start with support from the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. The commis- sioning party for the Qudra programme is the German Federal Min- istry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). The EU is involved in financing the project. ‘Quick wins’ The EU Regional Trust Fund in Response to the Syrian Crisis (also known as the Madad Fund) and BMZ are financing projects in northern Iraq that can be implemented swiftly and produce rapid results (‘quick wins’) to improve the lives of refugees, internally dis- placed persons and the host population. A panel of representatives from various ministries and the northern Iraq Crisis Coordination Centre works with GIZ to decide which proposals will be imple- mented. Ibrahim and six other disabled Peshmerga veterans have benefited from one of the selected ideas. As the young man stresses, ‘This shop has saved me and my family from dark thoughts and fear for our future.’ akzente 3/18 13 IRAQ Capital: Baghdad / Population: 36 million (estimated) / GDP per capita: USD 4,610 / Economic growth: 11 per cent / Human Development Index ranking: 121 (out of 188) Erbil IRAQ Baghdad ‘Qudra’ is Arabic for ‘strength’ or ‘capacity’. The programme of the same name is being imple- mented on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and is improving infrastructure, livelihoods and social cohesion in northern Iraq. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/41284.html Contact: Jenny Hornisch, email@example.com
Report The most popular helper for the workers on Hassan Othman Pirman’s farm is the new milking machine. It’s also making life easier for Huda Ali Khalaf (left), who fled to northern Iraq from Syria with her family. (Right) Sazan Hassan, one of the farmer’s daughters, with home-made yoghurt. ‘This shop has saved me and my family.’ MOHAMMAD MAHMOOD IBRAHIM, former Peshmerga fighter The project contributes to these United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Start-up capital for a new life Ibrahim had, in fact, already been thinking about opening a small shop for some time. However, having lost their livelihood and with- out start-up capital, the family lacked the means to turn the idea in- to reality. A team from the Ministry of Peshmerga Affairs designed the shop and constructed it with support from GIZ. GIZ also put up the capital to stock the new shop with goods. Gazung Mustafa is de- lighted: ‘Over the past eight months, we’ve been to the wholesalers three times to restock the shop. I help my husband – I know what household goods women need. We’ve already managed to save around EUR 800, and I no longer need to worry about where the next meal for us and our two young daughters is coming from.’ The savings also mean the couple can afford Ibrahim’s next round of treatment and to pay for medicines. Around 150 farmers and their employees have benefited from another project proposed by the Directorate of Agriculture and Livestock Production in Erbil Province. Livestock farmers who employ Syrian refugees have been given milking machines for their 14 akzente 3/18
Building up hope sheep, goats and cows. This is a boon to the 530 women who milk the animals, making their daily work considerably easier. One of them is the Syrian national Huda Ali Khalaf. More milk, fewer aches and pains She fled to northern Iraq in 2013 with her husband Mahmood Said Hussein and their seven children. Her husband quickly found work tending Hassan Othman Pirman’s sheep. Since then, the family has lived on Pirman’s farm in Bastoora. Hussein looks after the 200 sheep and goats, and Khalaf milks them each morn- ing. ‘I already had tendonitis and constant pain in my arms as a result of all that milking,’ she says. ‘The milking machine offers incredible relief. I no longer get exhausted milking, and I finish an hour earlier.’ Using the machine has also boosted the milk yield, as it works consistently, right up to the last animal. Khalaf uses the milk to produce yoghurt and cream cheese, which are sold at the local market. Since mid-2016, GIZ and a wide range of northern Iraqi agencies and municipalities have successfully implemented 12 such ‘quick win’ projects. These projects alone have made substantial improvements to the lives of more than 33,000 people in northern Iraq. Both refugees and the local population benefit. The partners plan to carry out a further 46 projects by June 2019. These projects will benefit around 200,000 women, men and children. The activ- ities are very varied and include maintenance of electrical infra- structure, construction of new roads and water mains, and expan- sion of a hospital. Ideas big and small are making life significantly easier for many families in northern Iraq and giving new confi- dence to people like the former Peshmerga fighter Mohammad Mahmood Ibrahim. — On earlier trips to northern Iraq, journalist GABRIELE RZEPKA had already observed how the people there are attempting to re-establish their lives. their confidence never ceases to impress her. It was not FABIAN SCHWAN-BRANDT’s first time in Iraq either. the photographer and film-maker recorded rzepka’s research. akzente 3/18 15 INTERvIEW REBIN ZIKHANI Deputy Director of Health in the Ministry of Peshmerga Affairs What is your focus when assisting disabled war veterans? Until now, our focus was on pro- viding medical care for around 10,000 wounded former soldiers. we didn’t realise how badly they suffered psychologically and so- cially if they were unable to re- turn to the military. we just couldn’t see it until we started cooperating with GIz. What was so special about this cooperation? we thought it would be very easy to select a group of disa- bled Peshmerga and help them. we realised, though, that our Ministry had no guidelines for projects of this kind. GIz was the first non-military organisation to support the Peshmerga in build- ing a new life. Suddenly, we not only had to select the individu- als who would benefit from the project but also to develop the concept itself and implement it. that was new for us. How do you view the outcomes? One of the soldiers who was given his own small shop to run recently told me that he is able to sleep again at last. He no longer spends all day dwelling on his physical pain and his bleak future. He now has a task, feels needed and is able to look after his family. So it’s not just our soldiers who benefit. the situation of the entire family is better. THE PROJECT IN FIGURES 33,000 people in northern Iraq have already seen their living conditions improve as a result of the individual projects. 200,000 people will benefit from further initiatives to be imple- mented by June 2019.
IN FOCUS EmPLOY mENT Work brings order to life and enables us to earn a living. But jobs – and the value they bring – are in short supply. We look at how that can be changed, and where there are already signs of improvement.
REPORT Learning for life youth unemployment in Tunisia is high. A partnership is helping young people to get the training they need to see a better future in their own country. p. 18 OVERVIEW The multifaceted working world Employment shapes lives – including those of people who are unable to gain a foothold in the labour market or who suffer from its excesses. Five facets of the working world. p. 22 ESSAY New ways to tackle the jobs crisis In the fight against rising unemployment, new approaches and policy ideas are needed, writes World Bank economist David Robalino. p. 24 INFOGRAPHIC A long way to go For many people around the world, a secure job that ensures a decent standard of living remains a distant goal. p. 30 INTERVIEW ‘Skills and loans are essential’ Onyeche Tifase is the Managing Director and CEO of Siemens Nigeria. In an interview with akzente, she gives her view on how to reduce unemployment in Africa. p. 32 BACKGROUND Our job: to promote decent work Better job services, cash for work and structural reform: Tilman Nagel outlines GIZ’s approach to promoting employment worldwide. p. 34 EXAMPLES OF GIZ’S WORK Jobs, jobs, jobs A new job is created every three and a half minutes as a result of GIZ’s work. Our guiding principles and five examples. p. 35
In focus: Employment Trainer Salha Dellala (centre) instructs many young men and women at Sartex. Salem Fadhloun (bottom left) has also found work here – having previously tried twice to get to Europe. 18 akzente 3/18
Report Learning for life Youth unemployment in Tunisia is high – in part because the education and training system is not geared to the needs of the modern labour market. A partnership is helping young people to get the training they need to see a better future in their home country. Salha Dellala examines the seam closely, gives the trouser leg a sharp tug, then smiles. ‘Very good. That’s exactly the quality we need for the export market,’ she says, praising the garment worker who stitched the jeans. ‘Keep up the good work!’ Dellala is an instructor at the train- ing centre of Tunisian textile manufac- turer Sartex. In the hall, 150 young women and a few men sit at sewing ma- chines, learning how to make trousers, shirts and skirts. Once they have com- pleted their training, Sartex intends to take on all the trainees. The Deutsche Ge- sellschaft für Internationale Zusammenar- beit (GIZ) GmbH is supporting the train- ing centre as well as numerous start-ups on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Develop- ment (BMZ). Seven years after the revolu- tion, the focus is on strengthening the Tu- nisian economy and supporting the fledg- ling democracy. Salem Fadhloun has also benefited from the employment initiative. Until re- cently, the 25-year-old’s prospects for the future seemed bleak – at least in his home country. He had already tried to reach Eu- ‘There is now no reason for me to risk my life trying to get somewhere else.’ SALEM FADHLOUN, GARMENT WORKER rope on board a smuggling boat twice, but both times his plans fell through. And on both occasions he lost all his savings. He is now employed as a garment worker at Sar- tex and no longer thinks about starting a new life across the Mediterranean Sea. ‘I re- ceived good training and have a secure job here. I also met my wife Haifa through my work. We welcomed our son Zakaria six months ago. There is now no reason for me to risk my life trying to get somewhere else,’ says the young father. Lack of jobs for young people, particularly in rural areas Yet young Tunisians are still boarding smug- gling boats in the hope of finding decent work far from home. Many of them are from rural regions. In some areas, one in two young adults is unemployed. But, at the same time, there are vacancies on the Tuni- sian labour market that cannot be filled by Tunisian and foreign employers due to the dearth of qualified candidates. Sartex, which produces clothing for companies such as Hugo Boss, Ralph Lauren, Yves Saint Lau- rent, Lacoste and Calvin Klein near the coastal town of Monastir, was also desper- akzente 3/18 19
In focus: Employment Above: Salha Dellala is happy with the work of a trainee at the training centre of textile manufacturer Sartex. Below: The company employs around 3,400 staff and is looking to take on more skilled personnel. Top: Sartex also produces garments for luxury labels – and is investing in training. Below: Jeans ‘made in Tunisia’ The project contributes to these United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): 20 akzente 3/18
Report IN FIGURES Future job in Tunisia: social media manager 4,400 men and women have found work through the Fund. 5,700 people have received initial and continuing training. 200 entrepreneurs have received support in starting a business. Tunis Monastir TUNISIA The Centre also works closely with CORP – a vocational guidance and professional re- training centre founded by GIZ and the German-Tunisian Chamber of Industry and Commerce – to assist those who do not meet the criteria to work in Germany and currently do not have the right qualifica- tions to find employment in Tunisia. ‘In Tu- nisia, many companies are looking for com- munity managers for their social media channels, technicians and human resources specialists. But as things stand, very few people on the labour market have these skills,’ says CORP Director Youssef Fennira. ‘With our personalised retraining pro- grammes, we help to close the gap between supply and demand. More than 1,000 grad- uates of our programmes have already found a permanent job.’ — IN WORDS ‘We support Tunisian partners in improving practical and theo- retical vocational education and training.’ TOBIAS SEIBERLICH TOBIAS.SEIBERLICH@GIZ.DE PHILIPP HEDEMANN has reported from more than 20 countries as a freelance Africa correspondent. His articles have been published in newspapers such as ZEIT and Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung and in the magazine Cicero. THOMAS IMO is a Berlin-based photographer and travels the world capturing powerful images. When not behind the camera himself, he teaches photojournalism at the Westphalian University of WWW.GIZ.DE/EN/WORLDWIDE/16007.HTML Applied Sciences. ately looking for suitable workers. In the end, the 3,400-strong company decided to establish its own training centre and has now invested around EUR 1.5 million in this venture. Until mid-2016, BMZ provided support for the project in the form of advi- sory services worth approximately EUR 200,000. ‘In many cases, the curricula of state vo- cational colleges have changed little since the 1960s and no longer meet the needs of the modern labour market. That’s why we are supporting Tunisian partners such as Sar- tex in improving practical and theoretical vocational education and training,’ says To- bias Seiberlich from GIZ, who is responsible for the Open Regional Fund for Promoting Training and Employment for Young People in Tunisia. Nurses needed: from Tunis to Wiesbaden The German-Tunisian Centre for Jobs, Mi- gration and Reintegration in the capital city Tunis, which was opened in March 2017 by Gerd Müller, German Federal Minister for Economic Cooperation and Development, also helps Tunisians to find suitable employers. More than 1,500 men and women have already visited the Centre, which was set up by GIZ and the German Federal Employment Agency’s Interna- tional Placement Services (ZAV). But ‘98 per cent of the people who come to us are primarily looking for opportunities to mi- grate to Germany legally,’ says project man- ager Aylin Türer-Strzelczyk. However, Tunisians can only obtain a work visa if they have trained in a field in which Germany is currently looking for specialists – for example, in nursing. The Centre has already helped 18 Tunisian nurses to prepare for jobs in Germany. Mounir Ben Abdallah from Tunis is one of them. He has been learning German for eight months. Staff at the Centre helped him to fill in the many forms and find a job in a hospital in Wiesbaden, where he is due to start work soon. ‘I’m really looking for- ward to broadening my knowledge in a German hospital. And the pay is also good,’ says the 28-year-old. akzente 3/18 21
In focus: Employment The multifaceted working world Employment means a secure livelihood, participation, plans for the future. It shapes all our lives – including those of people who are unable to gain a foothold in the global labour market or who suffer from its excesses. Five facets of the working world. USD 440 billion LABOUR MIGRATION Migrants from developing coun- tries transferred more than USD 440 billion to their families back home in 2017. The World Bank ex- pects this amount to rise further as the number of migrant workers increases. For many countries, re- mittances are a vital economic factor: in small- er economies such as Liberia, Nepal and Tajikistan, they account for one third of gross domestic prod- uct. Remittances support development, for instance by enabling family members in countries of origin to pay for schooling and medication, purchase land for farming or realise a business idea. Total annual remittances are almost three times as high as the official spending of all countries on development assistance. — www.worldbank.org Gender perceptions slow to change WOMEN In many countries, it is now generally accepted that women can both work and have children. In some places, however, attitudes are slow to change. According to a Gallup poll, more than one in five men in Germa- ny believe that a woman’s place is in the home. This opinion is shared by an even greater proportion of men in Russia (36 per cent), Poland (30 per cent) and Lebanon (26 per cent). At the other end of the scale are Italy (9 per cent), Tanzania (8 per cent) and Spain (3 per cent). — 22 akzente 3/18
Staying active for longer WORKING IN OLD AGE In many Western countries, it is common for people to work beyond the official retirement age. Some need the money, others simply want to remain active in old age. And unlike two decades ago, there is now plenty of work for older people. However, a study conducted by Boston College on older workers in the USA showed that there is an increasing divide between the types of work performed: older people either work in highly specialised positions and industries requiring a certain level of expertise, or they take on unskilled jobs, for example in sales, gastronomy or childcare. By contrast, the research suggests that older workers are significantly under- represented in middle-level positions and jobs requiring standard skills. — www.bc.edu Overview Young and looking for work UNEMPLOyMENT youth unemployment is very high worldwide. According to the International Labour Organization, almost 71 million people between the ages of 15 and 24 have no job. Some regions are affected much more severely than others. The situation is especially difficult for young people in the Arab world, where almost 30 per cent of young women and men are unemployed. It is the young people in East and South Asia who have the best chance of finding work. youth unemployment there stands at just one in ten. In sub-Saharan Africa, youth unemployment is currently lower than it was ten years ago, having fallen from 11.6 per cent in 2008 to 11.2 per cent in 2018. Despite this, Africa too will see millions more young people converg- ing on the domestic labour market in the coming years – or trying their luck in other countries. — ) T H G I R , 3 2 E G A P ( E G A M I A I A C / S E G A M I Y T T E G , ) T F E L , 3 2 E G A P ( C A P A I S A / S E G A M I Y T T E G , ) 2 2 E G A P ( S E G A M I Y T T E G A I V K E H T O T O H P : S O T O H P Combating child labour MODERN SLAVERy Around one in ten children worldwide are subject to child labour. According to the International Labour Organization, this applied to approximately 152 million children and young people in 2016, primarily working in the agriculture sector. Almost a third of these children are forced to do hazardous work – in mines, for example. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals include eradicating modern slavery and child labour. The aim is to end all forms of child labour by 2025 – an undertaking fraught with difficulties. — akzente 3/18 23
In focus: Employment Prosperity through employment: our illustration shows how a young shepherd works his way up to becoming a textile producer – a development driven by knowledge and training. 24 akzente 3/18
Essay New ways to tackle the global jobs crisis Work is the best way to reduce poverty – yet more than one billion people have no job or are underemployed. In the fight against rising unemployment, new approaches and policy ideas are needed, explains David Robalino, a labour market expert at the World Bank. W e often think of a job as a source of income for workers. But jobs represent much more for society and indi- viduals. Countries grow, for instance, when more people work, when each job in the economy becomes more productive, and when people move from low to higher pro- ductivity jobs. A good portion of the reduc- tion in poverty that we have seen worldwide can be explained by an increase in the la- bour income of the poor, their main source of income. Jobs also contribute to the accu- mulation of human capital and promote so- cial stability. A young person who is em- ployed learns on the job, gains experience, makes other workers in the economy more productive and is less likely to engage in risky or criminal behaviour. Women who work also tend to invest more in the human ) 9 2 – 4 2 E G A P ( R E Y A B N A I R O L F : S N O I T A R T S U L L I IN THIS ARTICLE 1. MORE THAN A JOB Why employment is so important for individuals and society. 2. REAL DANGERS How the difficult situation on the global labour market could get even worse. 3. WHAT TO DO? How targeted investments can create suitable jobs. capital of their children. Ultimately, our jobs give us a sense of identity, affect our level of wellbeing and determine whether we feel self-fulfilled or alienated, whether we are likely to start or join a revolution, and whether or not we vote and for whom. And yet, as important as jobs are, we are failing to avert a global crisis possibly as con- sequential as climate change. Indeed, a world in the not too distant future in which the majority of people do not work or are underemployed is now a real possibility. It is unlikely, however, to be a world in which people are happier, enjoying more leisure and time with their friends and families thanks to machines that take care of most tasks and generous government benefits (fi- nanced by the owners of the machines). At least at first, it could be a world of high in- equality, social instability, widespread men- tal health problems, environmental degra- akzente 3/18 25
In focus: Employment ‘Differences in job opportunities and earnings within and across coun- tries are becoming more and more pronounced.’ dation, and massive movements of people across borders. Today there are roughly 7.5 billion hu- man beings on planet Earth, 4.5 billion of whom are old enough but not too old to work. Of this number, 1.2 billion are inac- tive; they are not attending school, working, or looking for a job. According to World Bank calculations, 200 million of those clas- sified as active are actually unemployed and 2 billion are underemployed. They are work- ing just a few hours a week, are self-employed as subsistence farmers or in small household enterprises with very low productivity, sell- ing products in tiny local markets. In Africa and South Asia, over 75 per cent of these workers do not produce or earn enough to feed their families; they are poor. In fact, the differences in job opportunities and earnings within and across countries are be- coming more and more pronounced. This is creating social dislocation and is leading to massive movements of people. There are cur- rently over 260 million international mi- grants (up from 170 million in 2000) and many millions of refugees. They are willing to cross borders and oceans, but receiving countries or regions are not always ready for them. Those who survive the journey often face destitution, abuse or exploitation. New technologies will continue to displace jobs Demographics and technological change will complicate things further. In countries in Africa and South Asia with young popu- lations, there will be many new entrants to the labour market. It is estimated that mid- dle and low-income countries will need to create 530 million jobs by 2030 to absorb them, yet at the current pace they may cre- ate only 400 million. At the same time, in high-income countries where populations are getting older, the challenge is to get people to work for longer in order to keep afloat strained social security systems. This is not easy to do, particularly in the face of fast technological change. New technolo- gies are displacing – and will continue to displace – jobs not only on the factory floor but also in the services sector. From ac- countants and travel agents to paralegals and soon drivers. Granted, new technolo- gies also open up opportunities to create new products and services and therefore new jobs. But it is not easy for those who had the old jobs to take on the new ones; 26 akzente 3/18
Essay the skills and competencies are very differ- ent. More than that, new jobs are likely to be created in very different sectors and in faraway regions. We economists got things wrong. We had too much faith in the idea that, as long as countries put in place the ‘right’ business environment – meaning the right macro and regulatory policies – private investments would increase, resources would flow to the most productive sectors and regions, econo- mies would grow and jobs would follow. To address the jobs challenge, it was therefore thought that countries needed to promote macroeconomic stability, simplify business regulations, promote investments in infra- structure and education, and improve gov- ernance. But as important as these policies are, they are insufficient. Growth does not automatically mean new jobs First, even with stability and the right busi- ness environment, private investments do not happen on the scale needed if there is not enough entrepreneurial capacity, which is often the case in developing countries. More importantly, in situations in which countries need to achieve social objectives through employment, it is unlikely that private entrepreneurs or investors alone can generate the right number and distribution of jobs. This is what we have seen even in countries such as Georgia and Chile, which have been prolific with the adoption of structural reforms. The data shows, in fact, that many growth episodes across countries have taken place with little to show in terms of job creation or without addressing issues related to poverty, the informal sec- tor, youth unemployment and low female labour force participation. The sectors and regions in which investments are made – usually urban areas with the right infra- structure – are not necessarily where vul- nerable workers live. Moreover, they are not usually the sectors that demand the skills they have. So what should we do? We need to start thinking about jobs the way we think about carbon emissions. We know that car- bon emissions contribute to global warm- ‘We had too much faith in the idea that, as long as countries put in place the ‘right’ business environ- ment, private investments would increase.’ ing and are therefore bad for society. We also know that the private sector is not re- ally paying attention to the social costs of the emissions it generates as a result of its investments and production decisions. This is why governments try to tax carbon emissions and/or subsidise the develop- ment of technologies that reduce emis- sions. With jobs, we need to do something similar. Objectively speaking, the function of the private sector is not to create jobs or address the social problems that emerge because of a lack of good jobs. Entrepre- neurs, investors and managers do great things for society, but what drives them in most cases are financial returns, not jobs. Because they do not take into account the social consequences that their investments and production decisions have on jobs, governments need to intervene by subsidis- ing the creation of certain jobs and taxing the destruction of others. akzente 3/18 27
In focus: Employment This is not referring to wage subsidies. Many countries have adopted programmes that try to reduce the cost of labour – for instance, by reducing social security contri- butions. Tunisia, for example, did so after the revolution, as have many other coun- tries, including Chile, Jordan, and South Africa, as part of initiatives to promote youth employment. These programmes, however, have had a limited impact. This is in part because, when there is not enough productive capacity, adding labour, even if it is free, is not profitable. Instead I am referring to programmes that subsidise private investments contin- gent on job creation or improvements in the quality of jobs for specific population groups in targeted regions. In a way, these programmes would resemble the ‘industrial policies’ successfully adopted by countries in East Asia. South Korea, for instance, in- troduced policies to develop technological capabilities, promote exports and build the domestic capacity to manufacture a range of intermediate goods such as plastics and steel. Support for particular industries and imports of the necessary foreign technology took several forms including subsidised cap- ital, public investments in education (par- ticularly engineering and science) and pub- lic infrastructure to facilitate technological transfers. The focus then was on economic growth, but similar strategies can apply to jobs. The idea is not to pick winners but, instead, to recognise that certain private in- vestments which are good for jobs might not take place because private rates of return are not high enough. For instance, investments in agriculture and agribusinesses in lagging, low-income or conflict regions that would create jobs for the poor or improve the qual- ity of their current jobs might not material- ise because investors can achieve higher re- turns elsewhere – for instance, in the stock market. Yet, due to jobs externalities, the social rate of return on investments in the agricultural sector can be quite high. In these cases, governments need to increase private rates of return on investments through direct or indirect subsidies. These can take the form of matching grants for private investments, public investments in basic infrastructure and social services, sup- port for the development of value chains or technical assistance for start-ups or small and medium-sized enterprises. The proposal: a fund for more jobs Taxing job destruction is also not as crazy as it sounds. Many countries do it implic- itly through labour regulations that restrict dismissals and require the payment of sev- erance to workers who lose their jobs. But current policies discourage innovation, can harm the competitiveness of firms and eventually reduce job creation without necessarily offering good protection to workers. The proposal, instead, is to let firms manage their human resources as needed, and then replace severance pay (paid by employers) with unemployment insurance (paid by the government) and introduce a modest, explicit dismissal tax. The revenue generated by this tax would flow into a fund that could be used to fi- nance active programmes that help work- ers connect to jobs or move from low to high-quality jobs. 28 akzente 3/18
Essay ‘We need to start thinking about jobs the way we think about car- bon emissions. Because entrepre- neurs do not take into account the social conse- quences that their investments have on jobs, govern- ments need to intervene with subsidies and taxes.’ siderable amount of resources are allocated to activities and projects which are sup- posed to focus on jobs but in practice do not. Developing new instruments and models to support lending and invest- ments for jobs is key. Finally, as in the case of the East Asian Tigers, it is imperative that governments get their act together. A leaner and better prepared civil service can go a long way to improving policy-making and the allocation of public expenditure, in consultation with social partners. — DAVID ROBALINO is from Ecuador and has lived in many countries in Latin America, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. In his latest book, the World Bank economist examines the issues of social insurance, labour markets and how to protect workers while creating new jobs. Money for training in new technologies Thus, as new technologies change the de- mand for different types of skills, an infra- structure would be in place to retrain work- ers and facilitate transitions to new jobs. Al- most all countries have these programmes, which include different types of training, counselling, intermediation, job search as- sistance and mobility premiums. Unfortu- nately, only one third of the programmes that have been rigorously evaluated have had a positive impact. We need to improve the design of these programmes by adopting modern identification and statistical profil- ing systems to assess the main constraints facing beneficiaries, introducing rigorous monitoring and evaluations systems, and outsourcing the provision of an integrated package of services to providers (public and private) that are paid on the basis of results. Countries like South Korea, Malaysia, Colombia, Chile and more recently Tunisia are moving in this direction. To expand the coverage of these programmes, particularly to rural areas and vulnerable population groups, it is also necessary to rethink financ- ing mechanisms. Thus far, programmes have been mainly financed through general reve- nues. However, many of the beneficiaries could finance at least part of the cost. For instance, a recent survey of young people in Nairobi, Kenya, showed that they would be willing to pay up to 50 per cent of the costs incurred. Clearly, none of the reforms discussed above are easy to implement, and not all countries have the fiscal space to do so overnight. International organisations and bilateral donors will have an important role to play in facilitating reforms. Firstly, by trying as much as possible, to come up with a unified policy framework. Different organisations often have very different di- agnostics and offer very different policy recommendations, which is not particu- larly helpful for the country. Secondly, by mobilising the necessary technical exper- tise, including data collection, monitoring and evaluation systems. And thirdly, by ad- justing their portfolio of lending, invest- ments and grant operations. Today a con- akzente 3/18 29
In focus: Employment A long way to go For many people around the world a secure job that ensures a decent standard of living remains a distant goal. Between agrarian state and service-based economy Developing countries countries Developed countries Middle/higher-income 74% 22% 7% 23% 48% 70% The more developed a country is, the smaller the share of jobs in agriculture. In return, the proportion of workers employed in the services sector grows. Source: ILO Australia USD 9.54 Belgium USD 8.57 Germany USD 7.19 Minimum wage, maximum differences The national minimum wage per hour in selected OECD countries varies greatly. Chile USD 2.22 Mexico USD 1.01 Diagnosis: lucrative According to Forbes, nine of the ten highest paying jobs are in the ﬁeld of medicine – with neurosur- geons, orthopaedic sur- geons and cardiologists earning particularly well. 30 akzente 3/18
Jobs for those who like to live dangerously The riskiest jobs in the world include: Lumberjack Deep sea ﬁsherman Bush pilot Miner Personal transport driver Land mine remover Sanitation worker Source: List25 Future jobs to watch According to futurologists, in ten years’ time the top jobs in developed countries will include: Neuro-implant technician Smart home engineer Virtual reality designer Urban farmer Source: Futurism Considerable uncertainty Unemployment rates are similar across different types of country. But more people in emerging and developing countries work in precarious conditions, have no contract, no social security and a low income. Source: ILO Developed countries Emerging countries Developing countries 6.2% 10.1% 5.7% 5.5% 46.5% 78.7% Unemployment Precarious employment No safety net in an emergency 4 out of 5 Only one in ﬁve employees worldwide has social security cover. And in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, only 5 to 10 per cent of people have any form of social protection – compared with almost 100 per cent in developed countries. Source: ILO 5.1% North America 8.4% Latin America 12.1% North Africa 9.1% Western Europe No job Surprisingly, ofﬁcial unemployment is not highest in sub-Saharan Africa, but in North Africa, followed by Central Asia. Source: ILO/Statista 8.1% Eastern Europe 5.7% Germany 9.2% Central Asia 7.2% Sub-Saharan Africa 4.2% Asia and Paciﬁc akzente 3/18 31
In focus: Employment ONyECHE TIFASE Tifase started her career at Siemens in the United Kingdom before working for the group in Germany and the USA. She has been the Managing Director/ CEO of Siemens Nigeria since 2014. In 2018, Tifase took part in the third ‘Germany in the Eyes of the World’ study, in which GIZ asks people from various countries about their percep- tions of Germany. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/63559.html
Interview ‘Skills and loans are essential’ Onyeche Tifase is the Managing Director and CEO of Siemens Nigeria – the first woman ever to hold this position. Tifase, an electrical engineer, is convinced that unemployment in Africa can be addressed through knowledge and the right financial support. Interview: Friederike Bauer Without the right skills, it is very difficult for them to find jobs, even for university graduates. Because most young people do not have work experience, they lack certain business skills and do not know how to be relevant for the workplace. And many of them do not know how to start or manage a business. to younger people so that they can start a small business. In most economically suc- cessful countries around the world, small enterprises have played a crucial role. Some- times they even grew from a home office to a multinational company. So we need credit programmes for young people in Africa with feasible interest rates. How would you assess Af- rica’s economic perfor- mance? Africa is on the rise – for various reasons. We are now performing better with regard to some very important fundamentals, namely trade, entrepreneurship and social aware- ness. We have been improving on all three. The African people are more determined on what kind of leadership they want. We have seen a number of governments pushed out of power over the past one or two years. Take Zimbabwe, South Africa and the Gambia. Africa is also moving from being an exporter of raw materials and resources to added-value-products and manufactur- ing. All of this makes me optimistic. But you also have countries falling back into crisis and recession … We follow natural development cycles. Granted, we are still in early stages, but we are moving forward. You can now see more stable growth in many African countries such as Nigeria. Conflicts are being re- solved, and education and health care are being prioritised more. How could their skills be improved? A lot of young people are training them- selves by leveraging the internet, which of- fers many useful resources. Another way is for private firms and public institutions to work hand in hand to teach these skills. I am not only talking about vocational train- ing, but also basic competences on how to manage a business, on accounting and fi- nancing, on how to communicate. We have to empower young people to increase their employability and their ability to start or manage a business. For example, the Lagos State Government has a programme where undergraduates are trained by volunteer fac- ulty members on workplace skills. Many private companies including Siemens have supported this programme – and it is quite successful. What role does digitalisation play? It plays a huge role and makes a great differ- ence. Firstly, companies can leverage the in- ternet of things to manage, operate and maintain their assets more efficiently. Sec- ondly, entrepreneurs can increase their reve- nue and reduce cost with digital solutions and, in that way, expand and create jobs. Plus, Africans have the right mindset for it. They are passionate about the latest technical innovations and embrace them as fast as pos- sible, from mobile phones and all kinds of apps to digital solutions in manufacturing. In what industries do you see particular opportunities to create new jobs? The energy sector, because Africa has huge potential to use fossil fuels and renewables to close its massive electricity gap. Only 40 per cent of Africans have a reliable power supply. I also see opportunities in agricul- ture, food processing, manufacturing and the increasing leveraging of digital solutions across these industries. — ) 2 3 E G A P ( S N E M E I S : O T O H P Yet unemployment is high, particularly among young people. What is the best way to create more jobs? Indeed, many people are unemployed. Apart from skills, what else is needed to ﬁght unemployment? Another important factor is financing. We need institutions that give low-interest loans akzente 3/18 33
Background Our job: to promote decent work GIZ promotes employment around the world – often delivering rapid results. Better job services and instruments such as Cash for Work alone cannot solve society’s most pressing employment problems. Nevertheless, we can also address structural issues. By TILMAN NAGEL W e promote employment by training people for jobs and en- abling companies to employ staff on good terms. To do this, we need to maintain an overview of supply and de- mand on the labour market. To boost the supply of workers, we ensure that courses at universities and vocational colleges are geared to the needs of labour markets. To strengthen businesses, we ask what has to happen to enable them to invest, grow and create jobs. This was precisely what we did when advising the Government of the Republic of Moldova on how to attract foreign di- rect investors. Within five years, more than 8,000 jobs were created in the automotive supply industry. At the same time, we sup- ported the country in introducing a dual vocational education and training system. After four years, 20 per cent of training places were already ‘dual’, with young peo- ple learning part of their profession in a company and the other part in school. This project was commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Coopera- tion and Development (BMZ) and the Swiss Agency for Development and Coop- eration (SDC). In many of our partner countries, the labour markets do not function properly and there is a lack of information about jobs and career opportunities. We were in- volved in remedying this situation in Egypt, for example, where – on behalf of Schemes such as Cash for Work and better job placement services deliver rapid results. But the only way to reach the majority of the unemployed and underemployed pop- ulation is through structural measures. We need to expand education and training systems, improve conditions for investors, ensure reliable governance and fight cor- ruption. We have therefore set two goals for the future. Firstly, we need to target and bring the private sector on board even more directly. To achieve this, we plan to continue harnessing the experience of suc- cessful medium-sized German companies and, at the same time, to strengthen me- dium-sized enterprises in Africa. Indus- trial zones will play an important role in this connection. They offer companies very attractive conditions such as a reliable electricity supply, good roads or a port, wastewater treatment plants, tax incen- tives and simplified customs procedures. Zones of this kind can play a pioneering role. They enable a favourable environ- ment to be created quickly in a defined area without having to set about overhaul- ing national legislation. Secondly, we need to reach larger sec- tions of the population. This calls for an integrated approach in which the develop- ment of social security systems, high-qual- ity training and education, good infra- structure and inclusive financing services are more closely interlinked. — TILMAN NAGEL heads GIZ’s Competence Centre for Education, Vocational Education and Training, Labour Markets. firstname.lastname@example.org BMZ – we provided advice on establishing job centres. These are run by a non-govern- mental organisation and financed by fees from companies. These centres have ena- bled 9,000 young Egyptians to find work in recent years. In crisis situations, cash-for-work meas- ures have proven particularly effective. We implement this instrument on behalf of BMZ in countries such as Jordan, where ref- ugees are paid by the day to collect and sort rubbish. These initiatives have even resulted in the creation of recycling companies – and with them permanent jobs. 34 akzente 3/18
Examples of GIZ’s work Jobs, jobs, jobs A new job is created every three and a half minutes as a result of GIZ’s work. Our guiding principles and five examples. Where we come in Economic development fosters job creation. If compa- nies are to invest, there is a need for effective institutions, access to sustainable financial services and well-trained specialists. GIZ assists its partner countries with im- proving these conditions and strengthening the labour market. This has enabled 3.2 million people to increase their income within the space of five years. The new jobs are benefiting men and women alike. — 85,000 Well qualified in Pakistan CASH FOR WORK They refurbish schools, build water pipelines and sort waste under the Cash for Work programme, which GIZ is implement- ing on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). This gives participants temporary employment. 85,000 such community jobs have been created for refugees, internally displaced persons and vulnerable locals in Syria’s neighbouring countries. — REFORMS In order to prepare young people for the labour market, GIZ is working on behalf of BMZ, the EU and Norway to support Pakistan’s nationwide vocational education and training reform. 6,000 young people have taken advantage of dual training courses in schools and companies since 2015. The practical focus of the training is paying off, with 65 per cent of graduates already having found a job. — Bountiful harvest AGRICULTURE Around 70 per cent of the world’s cocoa is produced in West and Central Africa. However, cocoa farmers used to earn very little due to their lack of knowledge about technologies and sales processes. 10 million people are now benefiting from GIZ’s work on behalf of BMZ and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to enhance expertise in the growing of cocoa beans, cashew nuts, cotton and rice. — 455,000 NORTH AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST Secure employment contracts, higher incomes and an additional qualification: over 132,000 men and women in North Africa and the Middle East have finally found a job, are working under better conditions or have new career prospects. This is one of the achievements of the Special Initiative for Stability and Development in the MENA Region, which GIZ is implementing on behalf of BMZ. Because the initiative has improved the incomes of entire families, the total number of people benefiting from its work comes to 455,000. — Carers in demand PROFESSIONALS Germany has a shortage of caregivers, while nurses in many other countries around the world cannot find work. Triple Win benefits everybody. As a result of the programme, which is run by the German Federal Employment Agency and GIZ, more than 2,000 young people from Serbia, Tunisia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Philippines have found a job in Germany since 2013. — ) 4 3 E G A P ( H C S Z T N E R N A I L U J : N O I T A R T S U L L I akzente 3/18 35
EUROPE, HERE WE COME! THERE IS NO SHORTAGE of ideas in Kosovo, as you can see from this house in Priština, where someone has made an instant window out of a car door. But many other things are lacking, such as jobs, good infrastructure and political and economic stability. GIZ is working on behalf of the German Government to support the country as it transitions to a democratic state based on the rule of law. Areas of assistance include educational reforms and administrative decen- Photographer: REUTERS/Hazir Reka tralisation. EU accession is the nation’s long-term goal.
Momentum: In Stepove, many things have changed for the better, as the children in the local modernised kindergarten are experiencing.
Report ON COURSE FOR A BETTER FUTURE Following the Maidan Revolution, Kyiv has begun to decen- tralise Ukraine. For the first time, local authorities can de- cide how they spend their money themselves. A trip into the provinces shows how people’s quality of life is improving. TEXT PAUL FLÜCKIGER PHOTOS OLEXANDR TECHYNSKYI I ‘I feel like a ship here, sailing full steam ahead into the open ocean,’ says Olena Tertyshna. The Black Sea may be more than 200 kilome- tres away, but her glass office towers above the city’s central square like a ship’s bow. Tertyshna is the Director of the Dnipro Local Govern- ment Development Centre. In her mid-forties, she is responsible for supporting the administrative reorganisation here in eastern Ukraine. This is no easy task in a country that still has all the trappings of So- viet structures and in which all power used to emanate from central government, with lower levels of government having virtually no say in decision-making. Tertyshna heads a good team that also weathers akzente 3/18 39 intense storms – and, fully convinced of her mission, she has her eyes firmly fixed in the direction of Europe. New authority, responsibilities and direct tax revenue for local authorities are to bring about a better quality of life, and not just in metropolises such as Kyiv and Odessa. However, many communities were previously so small that they were unable to shoulder any larger responsibilities such as the planning and management of schools and health centres. Consequently, they are now being encouraged to come together to form larger municipalities that are able to pay for new infrastructure. This is also to help improve relations between the state and citizens. The Local Government Development Centre in Dnipro is one of 24 such centres throughout the country which have been up and running since 2014, including in the crisis-hit eastern region. As partners of the Ukrainian Ministry of Regional Develop- ment, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and the Swedish International Development Coop- eration Agency (Sida) are working together to implement the large- scale programme by 2020. The programme is being financed by the EU, as well as Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Poland and Sweden.
Report Left: Olena Tertyshna in her office in Dnipro. Above: Stepove’s village leader Jevhenia Korennaya is always on duty for her community – and she is proud of the changes she has ushered in. Also on the akzente website: Video interview with village leader Jevhenia Korennaya. akzente.giz.de/en Under the decentralisation reform, the new local administrative divi- sions have significantly more money at their disposal, which they can manage themselves. Local officials are receiving training to ensure that they are able to carry out this work. Mayors, councillors and others responsible for implementing the changes can also obtain ad- vice from experts at the local government development centres. From aid recipients to shapers of the future Four years on from the triumph of the pro-European Maidan Revo- lution in 2014, the decentralisation of Ukraine is the most popular reform achievement according to national surveys. Other changes such as ending corruption and oligarchy rule, however, will take more time. Nonetheless, the decentralisation is already having a tan- gible impact on the everyday lives of over six million Ukrainians. To date, 705 new municipalities have been formed on a voluntary basis. For the first time in the history of Ukraine, these local authorities have control over how some of their tax revenues are spent. Previ- ously they had to hand them over in full to the central government and were merely passive recipients of thinly distributed resources. The pro-Western Government of Ukraine has now largely done away with this unpopular legacy of the Soviet Union. This becomes apparent 40 kilometres east of Dnipro, where a vil- lage in the middle of the steppe now boasts a modern kindergarten, along with a practice traffic circuit. Stepove does not yet have traffic lights or pedestrian crossings, but that is only a matter of time. The goal is to prepare local youngsters for the new transport infrastruc- ture. ‘We’ve achieved more in the last two years than in the 50 years before,’ enthuses village leader Jevhenia Korennaya. Once an activist in the communist youth association, she has been representing the village’s 1,000 inhabitants for 15 years. Three years ago, she vigor- ously campaigned for the merger with Slobozhanske, a peri-urban community some 20 kilometres away, and the majority of residents voted in favour of it. The new and significantly larger municipality now has UAH 27 million (around EUR 900,000) in its coffers as op- posed to the previous UAH 1 million. As a result, it has been able to 40 akzente 3/18
On course for a better future INTERVIEW ‘Citizens will be looking very carefully at what their tax money is being spent on.’ Mr Zubko, Mr Milbradt, why is decentralisation so important for Ukraine? HENNADII ZUBKO: We want to transform our centralised, Soviet-style administration into a Western system. This will bring about a change in the mindset of public servants. It is also important to ensure that citizens can exert greater influence over local policy- making in future. GEORG MILBRADT: The decentralisation pro- cess will firstly serve to strengthen democ- racy, which is easier to achieve at local level. Secondly, municipal services will im- prove, as citizens will be looking very care- fully at what their tax money is being spent on. Where do the main problems lie in the decen- tralisation process? ZUBKO: To enable very small local authori- ties to take on tasks such as the construc- tion and maintenance of schools, health centres and fire stations, they need to merge with other communities. This is a voluntary process. Nonetheless, as with every change, there are always some people who object. That’s why things are not pro- gressing that fast. MILBRADT: People are creatures of habit. Added to this is the fact that Ukrainians generally mistrust their government. Many of them always assume the worst. To what extent is decentralisation also helping in the ﬁght against corruption? ZUBKO: The reforms are making financial flows at local level far more transparent than they were under the old centralised random distribution principle. Residents are integrated into the decision-making process and feel a greater sense of ownership of their community. MILBRADT: Decentralisation always involves decentralisation of corruption as well. Of course, corruption will not disappear of its own accord, but the most sensitive part of a person’s body is his or her wallet. If peo- ple’s wallets take a direct hit, then more ra- tional decisions will be taken in future. — Interview: Paul Flückiger HENNADII ZUBKO (photo, on the right) is Vice Prime Minister of Ukraine and Minister of Regional De- velopment. GEORG MILBRADT is the Special Envoy of the Government of the Federal Republic of Ger- many for the Ukrainian reform in the areas of good governance, decentralisation and public adminis- tration. Milbradt served as Minister President of Saxony from 2002 to 2008. akzente 3/18 41
Report ‘Here, we can knit, sing and reminisce about our youth together.’ The community of Slobozhanske has at last organised a meeting place for its senior citizens. Stepove can now afford its own fire station – it often used to take firefighters over an hour to reach the village. The project contributes to these United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): 42 akzente 3/18
On course for a better future expand the sewerage system and modernise the village school. Koren- naya also proudly adds that the kindergarten’s facilities are now ‘like those of a city kindergarten’. She receives the visitors in the newly constructed fire station. The lively 60-year-old created 12 jobs in the process. ‘The first ones in a long time,’ she points out emphatically. In the past, the fire engine was stationed in Dnipro and sometimes took over an hour to reach the village in emergencies. ‘We’re now far more effective at fire-fighting,’ says Korennaya. Goal – to encourage personal initiative ‘We aim to encourage citizens to take personal initiative and act un- der their own responsibility. We’ve already seen a major boost to de- velopment,’ says Bastian Veigel, who is director of the large-scale programme U-LEAD with Europe and is based at the head office in Kyiv. A total of 340 experts work for U-LEAD, around 95 per cent of them national personnel and experts. Back to the steppe, east of Dnipro. It also becomes clear in the community of Slobozhanske, with which Stepove has merged, that it is the seemingly tiny steps that often ensure the ultimate success of reforms. Community leader Ivan Kaminski presents the recently es- tablished meeting place for senior citizens. They still meet in an air- raid shelter, but there are plans to construct a dedicated building, ex- plains Kaminski. A number of pensioners have gathered here today. ‘It’s so boring being at home on your own. Here, we can knit, sing and reminisce about our youth together,’ says Irina Drahinoga. In this small provincial Ukrainian town, old and young are experienc- ing for themselves the improvements emerging from the restructur- ing of the municipality. ‘If people are experiencing things like this, then we are heading in the right direction,’ explains Olena Tertyshna in Dnipro, adding that this is a way of promoting democracy and economic develop- ment. ‘If decentralisation succeeds, then the public will finally have more confidence in the state,’ says the Director of the Local Govern- ment Development Centre. She has hung a map of the administra- tive district on the wall. Red arrows indicate potential amalgama- tions between communities that have not yet taken that step. With 56 merged municipalities, Tertyshna and her team are already lead- ing the way in Ukraine, and she intends to keep going full steam ahead. — PAUL FLÜCKIGER is a free- lance Eastern Europe correspond- ent based in Warsaw. He also reports periodically on business, society and politics in Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova. OLEXANDR TECHyNSKyI is a Ukrainian photographer and film-maker whose work has included documenting the Maidan protests with his camera. akzente 3/18 43 UKRAINE Capital: Kyiv / Population: 45 million / GDP per capita: USD 2,186 / Economic growth: 2.3 per cent / Human Development Index ranking: 84 (out of 188) Kyiv UKRAINE Dnipro Ukraine is undertaking far-reaching reforms. Local authorities are reorganising and can for the first time act autonomously. The goal is to achieve more de- mocracy, transparency and responsiveness to citizens’ needs. Germany is working with the EU and other member states to support the country on this path. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/39855.html Contact: Bastian Veigel, email@example.com THE PROJECT IN FIGURES Six million Ukrainians are already benefiting from the decentralisation process. 705 new municipalities have been created and can manage their own tax revenues. 340 staff from Ukraine and many EU countries work for U-LEAD with Europe. The EU and five member states are financing the project: Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Poland and Sweden.
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On the right track Life for criminals in Côte d’Ivoire is now more difficult. Germany is supporting this nation, and other African coun- tries, in the process of professionalising their police work. Two investigators and one crime victim explain. ) 7 4 – 4 4 E G A P ( O B G N A N Y R R E I H T : S O T O H P akzente 3/18 45
Perspectives ‘The theft at our company was cleared up quickly.’ ‘The training really opened my eyes.’ ‘It happened in our old office. We came to work one morning and noticed immediately at the door that there must have been a break- in. Numerous expensive items of equipment were missing. And the security guard was nowhere to be seen. So, we called the police and the investigators came straight away to begin their work. The fo- rensic officers started by taking fingerprints from all the staff – a good and professional move – before securing further evidence. The investigators also questioned all the staff, myself included. The security guard’s absence quickly made him the suspect, and so the police drove to his home – and their suspicions were con- firmed. It was subsequently found that he had committed the crime with friends. He has since been tried and sentenced before a court. We can’t thank the police enough for their swift and earnest action in this case. This allowed the culprit to be caught quickly and the stolen items recovered. While a couple of things are still missing, we got most of them back, as there were only three days between the break-in and the case being solved. We were more than satisfied with the outcome. The police don’t generally enjoy a good reputation in Côte d’Ivoire. They are accused of working negligently and carelessly. Based on this incident, we now have a different impression: the police here are efficient and professional.’ — ARISTIDE BITOmO (37) is the Financial and Administrative Director of Kameleo. The Abidjan-based company employs 23 staff and produces films for state ‘It was during my time at the police college that I first came into con- tact with forensics. I decided afterwards that this was the field I defi- nitely wanted to work in – it is a new area that could prove extremely helpful to the police force in Côte d’Ivoire. I was given a job in fo- rensics in 2009. Shortly after joining, we attended training run by GIZ in which we learned how to investigate a crime scene. What ex- actly should you do when you arrive at the scene? How do you take fingerprints and how are they then analysed? The training really opened my eyes. I had just finished my initial training at that time and was unfamiliar with all of this. Of course, I had seen a few things on television and read about forensics in leaflets. But the reality is completely different. Now, when we arrive at the scene of a crime, the first thing we do is to look for fingerprints. This had also been done in the past, but now we analyse and evaluate them properly. They are an extremely important means of finding out the truth. These methods enable us to work far more scientifically than before, when the focus was solely on questioning. I have since begun to instruct others myself. We have now trained almost 300 colleagues in cooperation with GIZ. The na- tional police college offers additional courses in forensics. 2015 saw us train some 100 police officers, who are currently deployed all over the country. Overall, police officers are now working at a very high level.’ — television and for companies. YAHAYA DOUmBIA (39), Police commissioner, studied economics and attended the police college from 2007 to 2009. He is now Assistant Director of the police records department. 46 akzente 3/18
On the right track POLICE PROGRAMME IN AFRICA In many African countries, the public has very little conﬁdence in the police service. Officers are not well trained and there is a shortage of materials and equip- ment. Investigations often come to nothing, and when cases do go to court, there is frequently a lack of solid evidence. Cross-border cooperation in West Africa is also hampered by insufficient professionalism. With a view to changing this situation, GIZ has been working on behalf of the German Federal Foreign Office since 2009 to support police reforms in several African countries. The focus is on better training and equipment. The programme is currently supporting police work in Cameroon, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Mauritania, Niger and Nigeria. Regional organisations such as the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, the Eastern Africa Standby Force and the G5 Sahel initiative are also involved in these cooperation activities. The goal is to modernise police work in line with international standards. The forensics laboratory in Abidjan shows what this cooperation can be like in practice. The facility allows testing of drug samples, as well as weapons, projectiles and counterfeit money. This makes it possible to recon- struct crimes that would otherwise have remained shrouded in mystery forever. — www.giz.de/en/worldwide/15637.html Contact: Marina Mdaihli, firstname.lastname@example.org You can ﬁnd an interview with Marina Mdaihli at akzente.giz.de/en THE PROJECT IN FIGURES 16,000 police oﬃcers have been trained since 2016 alone. 23 forensic facilities have been equipped, including a large forensics laboratory. ‘Our work also allows us to prove people’s innocence.’ ‘When we first started talking about the forensics laboratory here, this was a major discovery for me. In the past, evidence collection meant gathering witness statements and virtually nothing else. We can now follow leads at crime scenes better and piece them to- gether. This all helps to establish the truth and makes our work far more credible. The quality of our evidence gathering has signifi- cantly improved. The laboratory has taken on two tasks in the fight against ter- rorism. It supports the evidence collection process in this context too, but also plays a preventative role. When we suspect someone of a crime, for example, we can consult a fingerprint database. We can then carry out surveillance on any individual already registered as a suspected terrorist. At the same time, our work is important in proving suspects’ innocence. There was recently an incident at Abidjan airport where a French traveller was arrested for carrying a liquid on his person, supposedly heroin. But this suspicion proved to be unfounded fol- lowing our analysis. This example shows how our work can clear someone of the suspicion of drug dealing – and this has not been the only case. We therefore have further plans for the forensics laboratory. We are hoping that it will obtain accreditation in 2018, as this would boost credibility even further. Finally, I hope that we will have enough finance for the laboratory to become self-funding.’ — IBRAHIMA AKABROU (52), Director of the police service’s central laboratory, decided to join the police force following a degree in medicine and several years working in the health system. He has been helping to set up the central laboratory since 2007. The project contributes to this United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG). akzente 3/18 47
Info EDITOR’S Digital Picks Interactive journeys APP Inclusion, pay equity and health risks at work: the InfoStories app of the International Labour Organization offers interactive journeys through the world of work – with videos, quiz questions and animated graphics. — www.ilo.org/infostories The future of work INFOGRAPHIC What the world of work looks like today – and how it is set to change: the World Economic Forum has compiled a dossier of infographics on this topic. They show the situation of women on the labour market, assess the future viability of individual sectors and list the job skills that will still be in demand in the near future. — reports.weforum.org Inspiration PODCAST What is the secret to success? Each week, entrepreneur and web developer Arum Galadima interviews an entrepreneur from Africa. His podcast aims to inspire and encourage young Africans considering starting their own companies. — www.knowledgebandits.com Africa paradox BLOG The idea of work as a means of fighting poverty also plays a key role in the Africa blog of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). UNDP experts and other authors address a number of topics, including the continent’s many contradictions. For instance, why are six of the world’s ten fastest growing economies found in Africa – without a parallel significant improvement in the situation of the people there? — Virtual campus LEARNING PLATFORM The World Bank is convinced that knowledge is the key to solving numerous development policy problems. Against this backdrop, it has launched the Open Learning Campus, a kind of virtual educational centre and dialogue platform at the same time. Here, interested individuals can find out more about topics such as health, nutrition, poverty and governance and engage in dialogue with others. — www.africa.undp.org/blog https://olc.worldbank.org 48 akzente 3/18
Info GOOD READS form around the world THE SYMPATHIZER US society and the Viet Nam War – as seen through the eyes of a communist double agent living in California. A political thriller which turns conventional narratives upside down and satiri- cally attacks the power of the US media along with the dominant perspective on the history of US wars. Provocative, complex, witty, analytical and powerfully eloquent. Thomas Wörtche, cultural journalist Viet Thanh Nguyen, Viet Nam/ United States Grove Atlantic, 384 pages BEER IN THE SNOOKER CLUB Don’t be fooled by the cool title. Furious, desperately sarcastic and extremely witty, Waguih Ghali’s tragicomedy tells the story of the bored young upper class in Cairo following the Nasser Revolution of the 1950s and the difficulties of being an Egyptian. An extremely contemporary book from 1964, as political as Dany Laferrière and as nonchalant as Christian Kracht. Insa Wilke, literary critic Waguih Ghali, Egypt Serpent's Tail, 224 pages LITPROM RECOMMENDS Litprom – the Society for the Promotion of African, Asian and Latin American Literature – pro- vided these reviews for akzente. The titles were selected from Litprom’s list of the best new releases. www.litprom.de AFTER THE WINTER A Cuban man in New york and a Mexican woman in Paris are engulfed in solitude in a foreign world. Paris, in particular, is portrayed with vivid intensity in terms of the addictive loneliness that can only be experienced and yet at the same time overcome by migrants. Nettel takes their resig- nation seriously without succumb- ing to it. A captivating tale. Ruthard Stäblein, literary critic and editor Guadalupe Nettel, Mexico Translated from Spanish by Rosalind Harvey MacLehose Press, 256 pages akzente 3/18 49 LE SILENCE DES CHAGOS Have you ever heard of the Chagos Islands? Anyone reading Shenaz Patel’s poignant description of the injustice still inflicted on the people there to this day will never forget the name again. The name ‘Chagos’ gets under your skin, saturated as it is with sorrow over the squandered happiness of the islanders. Insa Wilke, literary critic Shenaz Patel, Mauritius In French Éditions de l’Olivier, 154 pages
Introducing GIZ is always looking for experts for its projects. Why not visit our ‘Jobs and careers’ page: www.giz.de/careers From: Winfried Damm To: all akzente readers Greetings from an energy expert Today, 16:23 Hello from New Delhi! I’ve been Programme Director of the Indo-German Energy Programme in the Indian capital since early 2017. My wife has joined me here, while our two children are studying in Germany. I’m a man of conviction working in the area of energy and the energy transition. After completing a degree in the USA and working as a research assistant in the German Bundestag with a focus on energy, I moved to Leipzig in 1992. There I helped to establish the Stadtwerke (Leipzig public utility company) and, among oth- er things, headed up the sales, financial control, strategy and foreign departments. I was eventually also responsible for energy policy, climate issues and investments. While working there, I also completed a PhD. After this experience of getting a lot of things off the ground, the India position is a wonderful next step for me. You can drive many things forward here which will have a tremendous impact in terms of the global energy transition. If India fails to make the energy transition, then it will not be possible to fulfil the re- quirements of the Paris Agreement. The Earth will then see a temperature increase of much more than two degrees Celsius. This is precisely the focus of our pro- gramme. Through numerous activities in the areas of energy efficiency, renewable energy expansion and its integration into the grid, and sustainable energy supply in rural areas, we are seeking to bolster the energy transition. Another main area of activity involves the fascinating opportunities that India offers as a quasi-continent to the German private sector as well. For this reason, we support business dialogue between German and Indian firms. I like the fact that many things move a lot faster here than in Germany. Decision- making processes are very quick. However, this also entails a number of challeng- es. In Germany, I was used to planning for the long term, with my schedule filled up two months in advance. I can’t do that here. I arrive at the office in the morning with four or five meetings planned, and I can already be fairly certain that only two of them will take place, though which two I don’t know. New meetings will then replace the others. You have to be able to deal with these constant changes – but then, that’s what’s so exciting about it, because it makes you change as well. Kind regards, Winfried Damm
SUSTAINABILITY A look back at a project and its results Banja Luka Gradačac BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA Sarajevo Project: Promoting entrepreneurship in the fruit and vegetable sector of northern Bosnia and Herzegovina / Commis- sioned by: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) / Term: 2000 to 2009 THEN NOW Bosnia and Herzegovina has had to undergo two major change processes over the last 20-plus years. At the same time as transi- tioning from a centrally planned economy to a market economy it had to rebuild follow- ing the total devastation wreaked by the Bosnian War between 1992 and 1995. The difficult economic situation after the con- flict was felt most acutely in rural areas, where unemployment rates were very high and per-capita income was 50 per cent lower than in urban areas. This rural pov- erty affected a large proportion of the popu- lation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, where over 60 per cent live outside of urban areas. In the northern region of the country in par- ticular, there is a long tradition of fruit and vegetable growing, thanks to the good cli- matic conditions. However, producers lacked professional equipment, access to financing options and marketing knowledge. This re- sulted in low productivity. Some 1,000 fruit and vegetable farmers in the areas around Gradačac and Banja Luka are benefiting from the changes that GIZ intro- duced on behalf of SDC. They were provided with high-quality seed and materials for tree nurseries, instructed in new growing tech- niques and given access to loans. As a re- sult, they have increased their harvests and the quality of their produce and have contin- ued using the knowledge they acquired long after the project ended. Through joint mar- keting, the farmers have also boosted their sales and their families now enjoy higher incomes. Additionally, a number of women’s cooperatives are profiting from the joint mar- keting initiatives. The project has improved not only the situation of the farmers but also the lives of young people in the rural region. The results achieved include social and cul- tural events organised by youth groups and new income opportunities for young adults. www.giz.de/evaluierung-landwirtschaft- bosnien-und-herzegowina (Available in German) ) 0 5 E G A P ( R A M U K P E E D A R P , X O V M A S , N O I S I V L A T I G I D / S E G A M I Y T T E G : S O T O H P akzente 3/18 51 AKZENTE Publisher: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Registered offices: Bonn and Eschborn, Germany Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 36 + 40, 53113 Bonn, Germany T +49 228 44 60-0 F +49 228 44 60-17 66 Dag-Hammarskjöld-Weg 1-5, 65760 Eschborn, Germany T +49 61 96 79-0 F +49 61 96 79-11 15 E email@example.com I akzente.giz.de/en Sabine Tonscheidt, Director of Corporate Communications Responsible: Anja Tomic, Deputy Director of Corporate Communications (GIZ) Content concept and editing: GIZ: Miriam Droller (editor), Uta Rasche FAZIT Communication GmbH: Helen Sibum (project man- agement), Friederike Bauer, Sabrina Pfost, Judith Reker, Brigitte Spitz, Oliver Hick-Schulz (layout), Martin Gorka (infographics), Corinna Potthoff (photo editing) English translation: Janet Fraser, Linda Golding, Jodie McGilvary, Matthew Popplewell; Gillian Lester (GIZ Language Services) Proofreading: textschrittmacher Graphic design/lithography: FAZIT Communication GmbH URL links: Where links are included to external sites, responsibility for the content of these sites lies solely with the provider. GIZ explicitly disassociates itself from all such content. Maps: GIZ/Ira Olaleye The maps are for information purposes only and do not constitute recognition under international law of bounda- ries and territories. GIZ provides no assurance that these maps are up-to-date, correct or complete and accepts no responsibility for loss or damage arising directly or indirectly from their use. GIZ is responsible for the content of this publication. Articles by individual authors do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the publisher. Cover photo: Thomas Imo/photothek.net All images: GIZ unless otherwise stated Copy deadline: August 2018 Published: quarterly Current issue: September 2018 Printed by: Druckerei Lokay e. K., Reinheim, Germany Printed on: Arctic Volume, certified to FSC standards ISSN: 0945-4497 You can subscribe to akzente magazine free of charge by sending us an email with your postal address to: firstname.lastname@example.org. You can also unsubscribe by sending an email to the same address. akzente has received several awards for its high-quality journalism and design. In 2017, it won the FOX Award in Gold and the FOX Visual Award in Silver.
Employment [ɪmˈplɔɪmənt] is the result of demand from companies and public sector employers for staff. It is the opposite of unemployment. If more people are pursuing an occupation, unemployment rates fall. The primary aim of any government’s economic policy is to have as many people as pos- sible in work. ‘Occupation’ – which is partially synonymous with employment – can also denote the time and attention we devote to a specific issue. As a service provider with worldwide operations in the fields of interna- tional cooperation for sustainable development and international education, GIZ works with its partners to develop effective solutions that offer people better prospects and sustainably improve their living conditions. GIZ is a public-benefit federal enterprise and supports the German Government and a host of public and private sector clients in a wide variety of areas, including economic development and employment promotion, energy and the environment, and peace and security.