issue 2/16 the giz magazine work – more than just a job other topics: india embraces solar power opportunities for refugees in jordan akzente
for uriona pardo, the most important thing is to improve people’s standard of living in this arid region. giz is supporting him in achieving this. thanks to training for farmers and the right irrigation methods, yields are increasing. ‘undernourishment should be a thing of the past.’ you can find more ‘faces and stories’ at www.giz.de/stories. eliodoro uriona pardo mayor of toro toro in bolivia scan the code with your smartphone to watch the video. faces and stories an abundant harvest even when water is scarce: that’s the challenge.
3 akzente 2/16 editorial dear reader, when asia khaled salamed talks about her future career, her voice is filled with hope: as soon as peace has been restored in syria, she wants to return home and use her newly acquired vocational skills to rebuild her country – ‘like the women who cleared the rubble in post-war germany,’ she says. for this young syrian, currently living in jordan and training to be a plumber, work symbolises her hopes for the future. the future, albeit of a rather different kind, is also epitomised by work 4.0. this initiative, launched by the german federal ministry of labour and social affairs (bmas), turns the spotlight on the future of employment – for the world of work is in transition. what kind of work do we want for tomorrow’s world? how is digitalisation changing our working lives? which types of work will disappear – and which new ones will emerge? in the not too distant future, the internet of things will ena- ble machines to communicate with each other and ease the burden of work, according to an interview with american author and software expert martin ford in this issue. but what if millions of people lose their jobs in the process? we could make things easier for our- selves if we followed the advice of the chinese philosopher confucius: ‘choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life.’ but jobs are a scarce commodity the future of work sabine tonscheidt, director of corporate communications firstname.lastname@example.org in many regions of the world – especially jobs which offer decent working conditions. according to the international labour organi- zation, almost 200 million people are without work – and the number is increasing. around 45 per cent of the world’s people are in precari- ous work – which means no social security or regular pay. in sub-saharan africa and south asia, the figure is a staggering 75 per cent. work is a multi-faceted issue; above all, it is beset with inequalities. that’s why we chose it as the theme for this issue of akzente. we invite you to join business journalist dirk böttcher as he journeys through the world of work in his cover story. read his account of what work means for the individual and how more jobs can be created in developing coun- tries and emerging economies, and form your own opinion. and if you would like to find out more, we recommend the videos accompany- ing the articles on our app for tablets or on our website (akzente.giz.de/en). i hope you enjoy reading this issue! best regards, decent work is a scarce commodity worldwide. photos: cornelius scriba (page 2), die hoffotografen/maria vogel (page 3)
contents 4 akzente 2/16 issue 2/16 the giz magazine work – more than just a job other topics: india embraces solar power opportunities for refugees in jordan akzente in brief in the spotlight 10 bright future for india green energy that pays for itself: how solar energy is helping power the delhi metro and a cricket stadium in bangalore. in focus 16 work – more than just a job labour market policies can only succeed if they reach those people without regular jobs. 24 in figures – jobs, jobs, jobs the gap between ambition and reality in the global labour market is widening. where will the job opportunities of the future lie? 27 ‘any job could be affected’ it expert martin ford explains how digitalisation is changing the world of work and why we need to adapt. 29 work gives dignity to women’s lives their work is the thread that weaves a society together, writes indian lawyer ela bhatt. 6 updates rapid deployment teams to tackle epidemics, dual vocational education in mexico, new projects in afghanistan and greece background 32 vital partners giz frequently works with non-governmental organisations. martha gutierrez, director of giz’s governance, crisis management and construction division, explains the benefits of cooperation. 3 editorial 30 through the lens 46 special: the new akzente website 48 info: events and publications 51 sustainability, preview akzente app you can use our app to read akzente on your tablet whenever you want. visit our new website for more information on the app as well as current and previous articles from akzente: akzente.giz.de/en
5 akzente 2/16 introducing 50 ted callahan his job as a security advisor in afghanistan means getting to know the country well. for him, with a doctorate in anthropology, that’s the real appeal of his work. authors and photographers britta petersen (1) from the ‘weltreporter’ network and photo- grapher florian lang (2) met jubilant cricket officials and en- thusiastic metro users in india. ‘in the spotlight’ reveals what they have in common and why they are in such good spirits. freelance journalist dirk böttcher (3), who writes for the business magazine brand eins, among others, knows that the mood on the global labour market is anything but cheerful. he describes the reasons and po- tential solutions in his ‘in focus’ article. katrin gänsler (4) also examines the topic of work. she visited cocoa farmers in côte d’ivoire who are returning to the classroom and using their new knowledge to increase their earnings. rolf obertreis (5) and photographer thomas imo (6) went to jordan to meet syrian refugee women who are training as plumbers and are already impressively at ease with the tools of the trade. the deutsche gesellschaft für internationale zusammenarbeit (giz) gmbh offers sustainable and effective solutions for political, economic and social change processes. giz is a federal enterprise that employs more than 16,000 staff members and operates in over 130 countries worldwide. www.giz.de/en company profile 1 commitment 34 precious water, valuable opportunity refugees in jordan are training as plumbers. it’s good for them and good for this very arid country. 38 protecting the coastal forest costa rica has ambitious plans for confronting climate change. mangroves play a key role. 42 better cocoa, better lives thanks to training, thousands of farmers in côte d’ivoire are earning more and farming sustainably. 2 3 4 5 6 photos: florian lang (page 4 left), imago (page 4 right), josé diaz (page 5 top), farshad usyan (page 5 below) 234 56
akzente 2/16 6 in brief 40,000,000 people could be in full-time employment in the maritime industry by 2030. this industry currently employs more than 31 million peo- ple, mainly in industrial fishing and tourism. employment growth is especially high in the areas of offshore wind power, marine aqua- culture, fish processing and port operations such as ship loading. 1.8 billion people are between the ages of 10 and 24. more than half of these children, teenag- ers and young adults live in countries facing many challenges, including violence, under- nourishment and poverty-related diseases. 83 per cent of 400 experts in a survey believe that, by 2040, it will be standard practice for the co2 emissions caused by producing and transporting goods and services to be specified on products. this is one of around 50 theses from the delphi energy future 2040 study conducted by the bdew german association of energy and water industries, management consultancy pwc and giz. rapid deployment the ebola epidemic has shown that the international community and health systems in many countries are unable to respond quickly enough to outbreaks of infectious disease. therefore, on behalf of the german federal ministry for economic coop- eration and development, giz has created a net- work which can be rapidly activated worldwide. fol- lowing two cases of lassa fever in togo, for example, experts from the robert koch institute, the bern- hard nocht institute for tropical medicine and giz are now training laboratory staff in togo and closing diagnostic gaps. preventing epidemics in figures
akzente 2/16 7 eskinder mamo founder of the ethiopian company ahadootec, which offers an online portal for learning resources. he received support from the centre for international migration and development (cim), which is run jointly by giz and the german federal employment agency. who is your ‘fidel’ learning platform for? it’s for secondary school pupils aged 14 to 19 in ethi- opia. in terms of numbers, education there has im- proved: 20 years ago there were 2.5 million school- children, now there are ten times that number. the problem is quality: 80 per cent of tenth graders are underperforming by international standards. what role did your background play in your idea? i myself lived in ethiopia until upper secondary school, just like my co-founder amanuel abrha. as students in germany, we were determined that we wouldn’t just focus on the problems in ethiopia but would also see the potential. the result was that we found some very talented programmers there who simply needed a chance to prove themselves. what form did the cooperation with cim take? cim not only provided us with financial support but also helped us build a network of contacts. after so many years in germany, we naturally had to first reconnect with ethiopia. we initially only wanted to launch a so- cial project, but the advice we received opened our eyes to the possibility of starting a business. www.ahadootec.com katja iversen, president/ceo of women deliver at the organisation’s fourth international conference in copenhagen in may 2016 ‘investing in gender equality – and in girls’ and women’s health – is investing in human progress.’ three questions for photo: getty images (page 6 top), illustration: elliot beaumont (page 7 top), animation: waechter und waechter architekten new academy wood, glass and the latest environmental standards – con- struction of new premises for giz’s academy for international cooperation is underway in bonn. ‘lifelong learning is essential if we are to tackle the challenges currently facing us,’ said chair of the giz management board tanja gönner at the ceremony to lay the foundation stone for the training centre. when the new building is complete in the second half of 2017, specialists and managers from the field of international cooperation will take part in courses there, some of which will last several weeks. the courses will be open to giz’s own staff and employees from other organisa- tions. a key task will be to prepare experts and advisors for assignments in developing countries and emerging economies. the academy is also making it easier to combine professional and family commitments, with family apartments and childcare facilities provided for course participants. lifelong learning akzente 2/167
8 akzente 2/16 in brief refugees iraq, jordan, lebanon, turkey: syria’s neighbours have taken in the largest share of refugees from the war-torn country. the burden on these countries is high. on behalf of the european union and the german federal ministry for economic coopera- tion and development, giz is therefore supporting refugees in this region. this initiative is financed by the eu’s madad fund, which was set up in response to the crisis in syria. ‘madad’ is the arabic word for ‘help’. the main emphasis is on education: in 15 ‘double shift schools’ in turkey, turkish children are taught in the morning and syrian children are taught in arabic in the afternoon. another priority is vocational education and training: the initiative supports 18 training centres in jordan and lebanon where young local people and refugees learn together. it also promotes the peaceful coexistence of local inhabitants and syrian refugees through sports programmes for all, and provides support for municipal authorities which have accepted refugees. overcoming crisis photos: fotolia (page 8 top), getty images (page 9 left), markus kirchgessner/laif (page 9 centre), getty images (page 9 right) research sleeping sickness and dengue fever are just two of the many diseases known as neglected tropical diseases. these primarily affect poor people, for whom the cost of treatment is mostly out of reach. pharmaceutical companies therefore have little incentive to research new treatments. the german federal ministry of education and research is now investing in combating such diseases, which also include aids, tuberculosis and malaria. five selected research networks are driving innovation in the health sector in sub-saharan africa. in these networks, scientists from ten german research institutions are working with scientists from 26 institutions in 14 african countries. giz is tasked with supporting the african universities and hospitals in the cooperation process. combating disease fair pensions in comparison women often face discrimination not only dur- ing their working lives but also afterwards. the graph shows the proportion of women and men of retirement age who receive a pension. in the three regions shown, pension coverage in northern africa in particular is clear- ly better for men. source: ilo (‘women at work – trends 2016’) northern africa 8.0% 63.6% eastern europe 95.3% southern asia 7.4% 12.0% 95.6%
9 akzente 2/16 mexico wiki official language spanish / capital city mexico city / form of govern- ment federal state, presidential republic / head of state/government president enrique peña nieto / size 1,964,375 km2 / population 127 million  / population density 63.2 inhabit- ants per km2  / gross domestic product usd 1.3 billion  / currency mexican peso (mxn) sources:  world bank 2015,  un,  world bank 2014 new projects supporting dual vocational education more jobs iraq up to 15,000 refugees, internally displaced persons and local people in northern iraq are receiving a wage for small jobs which benefit the community – for example, erecting tents in refugee camps, digging wastewater channels and planting trees to provide shade in the summer. the project was commissioned by the german federal ministry for eco- nomic cooperation and development. the support provided also includes short training courses which help refugees to become self-employed. more food afghanistan cucumbers, tomatoes and cauliflower are just some of the varieties of vegetables which could grow well in afghanistan, but have been thus far mostly imported from neighbouring paki- stan. on behalf of the european union, giz is therefore providing afghan farming families with seeds and training in the latest farming methods. families are also learning to produce milk products them- selves. the project aims to promote sustainable economic growth and boost employment in afghanistan, a country wracked by war and crises. exchange mid-2016 saw the launch of the year of germany in mexico and a simul- taneous year of mexico in germany. this two-way initiative aims to foster exchange on a variety of issues, including vocational education and training. up to now, only around 1,100 of mexico’s 250,000 vocational students receive a dual education, where theory and practice are optimally combined and contact with industry is fostered at an early stage. giz and the german chambers of commerce abroad are therefore supporting the mexican government’s efforts to establish a dual vocational training system. plans also exist to expand the scope of vocational training in mexico to occupations such as automotive mechatronics and industrial maintenance in future. giz is acting on behalf of the german federal ministries for economic cooperation and development (bmz), and education and research (bmbf). more solar power greece by 2020, greece wants 40 per cent of its electricity needs to be met by renewable energies, which currently ac- count for 22 per cent. on the greek is- lands, for example, solar energy systems could replace the expensive and environ- mentally harmful diesel generators used by hotels. the greek ministry of environ- ment & energy is therefore planning re- forms which also aim to improve energy efficiency. it is being advised by giz on behalf of the german federal ministry for economic affairs and energy. the project is partly funded by the eu.
bright future for india green energy that pays for itself: how solar energy is helping power the delhi metro and a cricket stadium in bangalore. text britta petersen photos florian lang
11 akzente 2/16 bhagia lakshmi loves riding the met- ro. her journey from home to the office by auto rickshaw used to take the 53-year-old around two and a half hours, but since the delhi metro opened, her jour- ney time has been cut to around one hour. ‘the metro is really convenient,’ says the office assistant who, like many commuters in the 17-million-strong metropolis, is accus- tomed to long journeys to and from work. she now has one more reason to like the metro: two years ago, the city’s metro opera- tor delhi metro rail corporation, which only began operating a sizeable route net- work in 2010, started installing solar energy systems in some stations, depots and admin- istrative buildings. ‘great,’ says bhagia lakshmi, ‘that’s even better for the environment.’ she is not alone in recognising the importance of solar power in india. with 300 days of sunshine per year, the country is one of the sunniest in the world. however, this great potential has re- mained largely untapped. for a long time, so- lar power was considered too expensive for india, where more than 300 million people live below the poverty line. the country is heavily dependent on coal to meet its energy needs. however, reductions in the price of solar energy systems have brought about a change in thinking in recent years. on behalf of the german federal min- istry for the environment, nature conserva- tion, building and nuclear safety, giz is supporting india’s efforts to develop the market for solar power in metropolitan areas and industrial centres. plans exist to install numerous photovoltaic systems and solar thermal power plants in future. the changes at the delhi metro rail corporation are a pilot project. ‘we have been interested in environ- mental issues from day one,’ says anoop ku- » mar gupta, director of the transport com- pany. from behind his heavy, brown desk, he may not look like a green pioneer, but ap- pearances can be deceptive: it did not take much to convince him of the idea. ‘when we saw that solar power also makes good fi- nancial sense, we decided to get involved.’ the delhi metro is now the only metro sys- tem in the world to be powered in part by solar energy. since the ministers of urban develop- ment and power opened the first solar-pow- ered metro station – dwarka sector 21 – in august 2014, things have moved at a rapid pace. the solar energy systems now gener- ate around 6.5 megawatts of electricity for the metro operator. this is set to rise to 50 megawatts by 2021. this represents just un- der one tenth of the total energy needs of the metro, which has a 190-kilometre route " when we saw that solar power also makes good financial sense, we decided to get involved. " network and transports around 2.5 million people per day. ‘the best part is that it didn’t cost us a thing,’ says a jubilant gupta. ‘all we had to do was provide access to our roofs for the so- lar modules, and we save on electricity costs to boot.’ the solar energy systems them- selves are installed and operated by six dif- ferent – public and private – service provid- ers. this was made possible by a special fi- nancing model selected with the support of german experts. one goal, two approaches under this model, one provider bears the cost of investing in the solar energy systems and also operates them. the metro, which only had to provide access to its roofs, buys the electricity from the provider at a contrac- tually agreed price which is lower than that of state competitors. as a result, the transport company currently saves around 15 to 20 per cent on energy costs. but this is not the only way to harness the financial advantages of solar power in india. the team in charge of a cricket stadi- um in bangalore chose another approach which, although different, is in some re- spects also characteristic of modern-day in- dia, with its dynamic private sector and strong public sector. brijesh patel is the honorary secretary of the karnataka state cricket association (ksca). his fully air-conditioned office in m. chinnaswamy stadium in bangalore of- fers a panoramic view of the playing field. two rows of chairs are arranged in front of the window – they are reserved for special guests who can watch matches from here while enjoying a drink. occupying pride of place on patel’s desk is a giant silver cup – in the spotlight
12 akzente 2/16 the ranji trophy – which the karnataka state team and patel himself during his time as an active player have won several times. manag- ing the stadium on a sustainable and ‘green’ basis is a new challenge for the sportsman and manager. not that he doubts himself. ‘we invest- ed around half a million euros in our solar energy systems last year,’ says patel confi- dently. this self-confidence is not without reason: ksca has one of the most successful teams in india. cricket is to india what foot- ball is to germany: the national sport and a market of millions. as well as hosting the home matches of the karnataka state team, m. chinnaswamy stadium is also home to another successful team, the royal challeng- ers bangalore. ‘cricket is the most popular sport in in- dia. we therefore have a social responsibility and a duty to give back to society,’ says patel. the stadium also has a rainwater harvesting system, a wastewater treatment plant and a biogas plant. giz supported the cricket asso- ciation on behalf of the german federal ministry for economic cooperation and de- india, with its 1.3 billion inhabitants, plays an important role in the worldwide effort to stem global warming. by 2022, the country wants to install enough solar energy systems to produce 100 gigawatts of solar power. by comparison: solar en- ergy systems in germany generated 40 gigawatts in 2015. to achieve india’s goals, changes are also required in urban areas where emergency diesel generators are often used. giz is supporting this change through policy advice and finan- cially attractive pilot projects which can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. good for climate and wallets » at a glance left: young and ambitious – the first solar-powered metro station has now opened in delhi. right: reliable and clean – the delhi metro transports 2.5 million people a day. solar modules on the roofs of buildings generate more than 6 megawatts of electricity for the metro. velopment. ‘around 30 to 40 per cent of our energy requirements are currently met by so- lar power,’ says patel. the aim is to reach 100 per cent in the coming year. but to achieve this, the stadium roof will have to be modi- fied first as only parts of it can currently sup- port the heavy solar modules. ksca is proud of what has already been achieved. ‘we constructed the solar energy system here in a record time of just 45 days,’ says syamjith t., the young electrical engi- neer in charge of the technical installation. german experts provided planning support and technical advice for the work carried out at the cricket stadium. electricity is also fed into the municipal grid like most cities in india, bangalore does not produce enough electricity to meet its own needs. during the day therefore, when the sun is at its most powerful, the stadium feeds electricity into the municipal grid. during play in the evenings, however, production is not yet sufficient to meet increased de-
additional content on the akzente app and website: one commuter’s opinion of solar power for the metro. akzente.giz.de/en left: setting an example – bangalore is home to the world’s first solar-powered cricket stadium. m. chinnaswamy stadium has a capacity of 40,000. below: energising – former cricket international brijesh patel recommend- ed that the karnataka state cricket association convert all stadiums to solar power.
akzente 2/16 15 fast: ‘we constructed the solar energy systems in record time,’ says young electrical engineer syamjith t. proudly. > contact sandeep goel> email@example.com mand in the stadium. ‘but since commission- ing the solar energy systems, we have reduced our electricity costs by around eur 60,000 a year,’ says patel. he says that the cricket asso- ciation consciously decided not to accept state subsidies for one simple reason: it would not have been able to sell its electricity to net- work operators. ‘our income increases every year as a result of rising electricity prices,’ ex- plains patel. the dynamic manager has there- fore put forward the proposal to ksca’s ex- ecutive committee that all stadiums in kar- nataka state be converted to solar power. a metro system and a cricket stadium – two institutions with two different approach- es to harnessing the power of solar energy for a low-carbon future. once both systems have reached their full potential, india will avoid around 60,000 tonnes of co2 emissions. this is equivalent to the annual emissions of around 30,000 cars. news of clean electricity spreading fast looking at the two solar energy systems in delhi and bangalore, it is also clear why the metro and the stadium opted for different fi- " around 30 to 40 per cent of our energy requirements are currently met by solar power. since commissioning the solar energy sys- tems, we have reduced our elec- tricity costs by around eur 60,000 a year. " nancing models. technically, it is relatively easy to install and maintain solar modules on the edges of the oval stadium roof in in- dia’s third largest city. but in the case of the metro, with its numerous stations, depots and high-voltage power lines, this poses a major challenge. under no circumstances can metro operations be interrupted to in- stall and maintain the solar energy systems. in some places, the modules can therefore only be checked, repaired and cleaned dur- ing a period of a few hours in the night when the electricity is switched off. in india, where air pollution is high, solar modules have to be cleaned much more often than they do in germany, for example. under the financing model, however, this is the responsibility of the operator, not the transport company. only 10 metro em- ployees are involved in implementing the so- lar project, but according to one of them, a number of colleagues have already enquired about how they can install solar energy sys- tems in their own villages. akzente 2/1615
more than just a job: work plays a key role in many spheres of life, yet much of it takes place outside the state’s regulatory frameworks. overview: examples of giz’s work in figures: wanted – jobs that pay a living wage ‘any job could be affected’: interview with martin ford, american it expert, about the effects of digitalisation work gives dignity to women’s lives: an article by indian lawyer ela bhatt work themes
19 akzente 2/16 in focus capture in statistics. people in informal employment have no pension provision, no sickness cover, no health and safety regulations – and no security. even today, most of the world’s workers are employed in this grey area – or blackspot. indeed, this applies to more than two thirds of workers in some asian and sub-saharan countries and to more than half the workforce in latin america and north africa. even in the oecd states, the estimated figure is a staggering 15 per cent. in other words, much of what we call work takes place outside the state’s regulatory frameworks. in india, an estimated 80 per cent of the workforce is employed in the informal sector, which thus generates a major share of the country’s gdp. that’s why british re- searcher barbara harris-white – who has also studied arni – warns that national and international employment policy will fail to reach the majority of people unless it also targets the informal sector. bringing it within the state’s regulatory orbit and subjecting it to proper control is especially important because criminal activities such as the use of child labour, modern slavery and the exploita- tion of women generally take place in informal settings and thus often go undetected. t he indian town of arni is perhaps one of the world’s most intensively researched labour markets. this municipality in tamil nadu state has been the sub- ject of international studies for more than four decades. during this time, its population has grown from 30,000 to more than 100,000 – so it is still a small town by indi- an standards. but thanks to the researchers’ efforts, we know quite a lot about arni. for example, it has more than 700 self-employed electricians – but only 320 of them are officially registered. and many in this latter group ‘inherited’ their licences from relatives: only 20 of arni’s electricians have any formal training. this minor statistic illustrates a phenomenon known in economics as ‘informal employment’. it means work that is not regulated or protected by the state. lo- cated at the crossover between home and industry, infor- mal employment is almost impossible for economists to more than just a job labour market policy is regarded as a tool that can solve many of the major problems of our modern age. but it can only work if it also reaches people without regular jobs. text dirk böttcher harsh and hazardous: many people have no option but to earn a living under adverse and even precarious conditions. » photos: getty images/andy sacks (page 16/17), getty images/jim reed (page 18)
akzente 2/16 20 in focus creating more formal employment is therefore one of the key goals of international cooperation – and should form part of national education and employment policy as well. in situations where this is not possible, at least not immediately, efforts should focus at the very least on im- proving conditions in the informal sector. the interna- tional labour organization talks about ‘decent’ work as the primary focus, because employment alone is not enough – working conditions are just as important. de- cent work benefits people by offering them more security and protection, and it also benefits countries and govern- ments – because jobs in the formal sector generate more tax revenue. and that is important, for robust public budgets are essential in enabling governments to spend on services such as education, health and infrastructure, which in turn are important economic factors for job cre- ation, thereby closing the loop. from silicon valley back to the west bank work has great significance for the individual as well as for society. it determines our social status and provides a structure for our day. that makes it a frequent topic of conversation. we have all heard the quip: ‘i don’t have time to do any work – i’m too busy earning a living!’ it never fails to raise a smile, but there is a lot of substance behind the humour. the employment problem is not due to a lack of work – there’s plenty of that around. the real problem, in many cases, is the lack of decent pay. some people approach the issue from a different an- gle. they don’t spend their time earning money – they want to do something more meaningful. one of them is peter abualzolof, an american with palestinian roots, who gave up a job in silicon valley in 2013 to return to the land of his childhood. as a project manager, he helped to create the west bank’s first-ever startup incubator, set up the palestinian branch of startup grind and ulti- mately launched his own company, mashvisor, which provides investment analysis and advice for the us real estate market. in financial terms, these activities are a ret- rograde step compared to his previous job, but peter abualzolof is happier than ever before. as this example shows, work is not just about earn- ing money. it provides a purpose in life and is essential for personal fulfilment. it promotes wellbeing – both physi- cal and psychological – and is a ‘master key’ to solving broader social problems. the diverse challenges facing humankind today can be broken down, at least to some extent, to problems with employment. more of a say project: implementation of social standards in the textile and garment industry in punjab commissioned by: federal foreign office lead executing agency: government of punjab term: 2014 to 2016 pakistan working conditions in the textile and garment sector in pakistan remain chal- lenging, with low wages and few opportunities for employees to have a say in decision-making. giz is advising the government of punjab on introducing and implementing the international labour organization standards. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/32073.html 1 examples of work at energising jobs project: promoting employment through renewable energy commissioned by: german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development lead executing agencies: governments in the mena region, focus countries: morocco, tunisia and egypt term: 2014 to 2017 mena region the use of renewable energies in the north african countries is creating new jobs for well-qualified workers. giz is supporting these countries’ efforts to equip these future experts with relevant skills. www.giz.de/en/worldwide/36137.html photo: getty images/jacques loic (page 21)
21 akzente 2/16 » but what do we mean when we talk about ‘work’? we mean a ‘purposeful, planned and social activity that pro- duces outcomes or products’, according to the relevant lit- erature. work is the basis for not only producing but also distributing goods and services. work creates equality and prospects for the future. being in work is seen as desir- able – according to germany’s integration barometer, which surveys people’s opinions on migration and integra- tion, work is important for becoming integrated in soci- ety – more so than practising one’s religion. ‘the job comes first’: it may be a cliché, but it still holds true. but there’s one problem: the lack of this vital com- modity in many places. in the west bank, for example, one in four people are out of work, rising to one in two in the gaza strip, where the blockade is still in place. for young palestinians with a university degree, it is espe- cially hard to find work. this leads to frustration and out- migration. people leave their country not primarily be- cause they hope to find work elsewhere but because there is no hope of ever finding work at home. all over the world, it is young people and women who are most often excluded from formal employ- ‘choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life.’ confucius, chinese philosopher and teacher 4 hours a day – the time women in the industrialised countries spend on unpaid household and care work, compared with just two hours for men. and that’s already after the gap has nar- rowed. source: ilo skilled and future-oriented: renewable energy jobs require specialist knowledge. more experts are urgently needed.
23 akzente 2/16 in focus ment. as a result, they endure miserable working condi- tions and irregular wages – or work for no pay. there were good reasons why most of the countless demonstra- tors during the arab spring were well-educated but job- less young people with no prospects for the future. un- employment is risky: it is a potential trigger of govern- ment crises and drives people out into the streets and across the seas. in tunisia, for example, youth unemployment has risen since the 2011 revolution: according to a world bank study, more than 23 per cent of urban 15- to 29-year-olds and almost 50 per cent of young people in rural tunisia were unemployed in 2014. the percentage of jobless graduates and women is particularly high. it is a similar picture in egypt: youth unemployment has risen substantially since 2011, reaching more than 40 per cent in 2014. even industrialised countries such as spain, greece and portugal now have shockingly high rates of youth joblessness. peaceful social relations therefore rest on fragile foundations. lack of education is one of the main causes of youth unemployment. this statement appears to conflict with the fact that in north africa, for example, joblessness mainly affects young graduates. one explanation for this paradox is provided by a survey of egyptian entrepre- neurs, who reported that less than one third of university graduates and only 16 per cent of vocational college grad- uates have appropriate qualifications. in that case, what hope is there that the much larger group of young people with neither a university nor a vocational education will offer the skills that companies need? according to nadine fawzy, a national project coordi- nator with the united nations industrial development organization (unido), vocational training is the most important weapon in the fight against youth joblessness and high levels of informal employment. the tremendous need for vocational training is also recognised by giz in its projects around the world. it aims to build a smart mix of theoretical and practical skills and is working to pro- mote this model in numerous countries, not least in the north african crisis region. every year since 2006, giz has helped 100,000 young people around the world to gain vocational qualifications. investing in greenhouses – creating jobs in egypt according to nadine fawzy, two other factors have an important role to play in lifting people permanently out of joblessness and informal employment: technical know- how and startup funding. unido is therefore support- ing small farms in egypt that are creating jobs for people with a variety of qualifications and employing unskilled workers as well as graduates at various stages of their pro- duction chains. the project has shown that providing in- vestment support for greenhouses, for example, not only increases agricultural output but also creates two to three new jobs for skilled workers for every 0.42 hectares of greenhouse, with additional workers being hired on more than 350 days a year. the data obtained from the many studies conducted in the indian town of arni also indicate which specific ac- tivities are helpful in sustainably improving working con- ditions. in arni, for example, a formal banking system has been set up, giving informal sector workers access to loans, which they can use to send their children to school or buy tools. the number of private schools has increased from 25 in 2005 to more than 100 today. the public » photos: imago (page 22), tarcher/putnam (page 23) well-connected: trade associations and networks bring great benefits, as the electricians in the indian town of arni know. economist and sociologist jeremy rifkin predicts that jobs will become even scarcer than they are at present. the end of work: the decline of the global labor force and the dawn of the post- market era. published by tarcher/putnam. ‘what keeps me up at night is poverty and unemployment.’ abdullah ii, king of jordan
people need work to achieve livelihood security and give their lives purpose. however, there are not enough jobs available, and in recent years the gap between ambition and reality in the labour market has become even wider. young people and women are most affected by unemployment; for them, finding work is particularly difficult. if they do find a job, they must often endure unfavourable working conditions. jobs, jobs, jobs + 600 million growing demand for jobs the world’s population is growing – driving up demand for jobs. 600 million new jobs are needed by 2020 alone. 28% 82% women still at a disadvantage globally, fewer than half of women have jobs, compared with four fifths of men. pakistan has one of the widest gender gaps in jobs: 28 per cent of women are in work, compared with 82 per cent of men. the private sector as a driver of jobs nine out of 10 jobs are provided by the private sector. young people hardest hit young people make up just 25 per cent of the workforce but 40 per cent of the unemployed. working population unemployed 25% 40% not every job offers a secure wage in europe and central asia, four out of five jobs pay a fixed wage, but in sub-saharan africa, it is less than one in five. here, most of the labour force works in the informal sector, for example in domestic service or agriculture. europe + central asia south asia sub-saharan africa 80% 42% 18% *in millions (estimate) global unemployment global unemployment is increasing. it has risen by more than 17 per cent in a single decade, with further growth predicted due to job cuts and an expanding world population. for many people, however, unemployment soon comes to mean poverty and a lack of prospects. 2009 197.7 2011 193.8 2013 198.6 2015 197.1 2017 200.5 2007 169.8 * 193.82013
25 in focus transport system – another important employment factor – has also been improved, so even unskilled workers now have access to the industrial regions of bangalore and chennai several hours away. the informal employment sector – disorganised, surely, by its very nature – has now become remarkably well-organised. the electricians have set up a form of trade association, which certifies its members according to practical criteria, such as job experience, rather than formal qualifications. what’s more, the sector is embrac- ing a culture of innovation, with the electricians proving to be adept at developing simple solutions. for example, modern appliances are often unaffordable for low-income groups, so many people are still using old appliances that run on a two-phase alternating current even though the electricity grids and generators switched to three-phase long ago. an electrician in arni therefore built a simple adapter that enables the old appliances to run on the new power supply. the adapter is now being mass-produced by an industrial enterprise in bangalore. in arni itself, many people swear by a paste made of cow dung, which is smeared on the contact points of old electric motors, making them – reportedly – easier to start. millions of the world’s people live in modern slavery these positive developments in informal employment are helping to transfer jobs, step by step, to the formal sector. this is also a promising way of combating the many criminal activities that are concealed within the informal sector. for example, the walk free founda- tion, a non-governmental organisation, estimated that there were around 30 million people living in modern slavery worldwide in 2013. these workers have no rights at all. in haiti, for example, 50 us dollars will buy a slave, who will then be forced to work – in the construction industry, agriculture, nursing care or pros- titution – anywhere in the world. as many as 120 million of the world’s children under the age of 15 are also forced to work: for example, there are children working in burkina faso’s gold mines, two thirds of them without pay. then there are the more » ‘el empleo’ [the employ- ment] – this award- winning cartoon film from argentina gives a pithy but perceptive view of the world of work. www.youtube.com/ watch?v=cxuuu1jwmgm 1 2 4 3 jobs with prospects according to forecasts, the fastest growing occupations in the united states include: biomedical engineering social and human services construction work (various) home health teachers wanted if every child is to receive at least a basic education, many more teachers will be required. 2020 +11 m +26 m 2030 oxfam médecins sans frontières unhcr giz red cross care working abroad the challenges facing international cooperation are increasing. many organisations are there- fore looking to recruit additional staff. some of them are: sources: international labour organization, unesco, us bureau of labor statistics, world bank 12
akzente 2/16 26 in focus » dual training project: improved employment opportunities for under 25-year-olds commissioned by: veneto region, italy; european union lead executing agencies: veneto regional government and employment agency term: 2014 to 2017 italy italy is reforming its vocational education system and aims to introduce elements of the german dual system. the veneto region – which is severely affected by major structural change within the economy – is a pilot region for these reforms and is receiving support from giz. www.giz.de/en/mediacenter/33640.html 3 examples of work at fair tea project: strategic alliance for better protection of workers and tea farmers commissioned by: german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development lead executing agency: ethical tea partnership term: 2015 to 2017 malawi and rwanda the alliance with various tea companies in malawi and rwanda is working to improve conditions for workers and smallholder farmers and increase wages. this is a developpp.de project. www.ethicalteapartnership.org / www.developpp.de/en 4 than 200 million chinese who have left their families in the countryside and migrated to the cities to work as cas- ual labourers, doing some of the country’s dirtiest and most menial jobs without employment contracts and earning just 400 euros a month at most. every one of these workers, children and adults alike, would benefit if their governments took decisive action to curb child la- bour, forced labour and informal employment and thus gave their citizens access to decent work. the world needs new jobs, but where will they come from? environmental technologies offer new opportuni- ties: in india, solar energy projects created 24,000 new jobs between 2011 and 2014 alone. investing in a re- source-efficient economy has a positive impact on the la- bour market. together with the expansion of smart power grids and wind energy, the number of new jobs increased to 70,000. if india achieves its goal of increasing its solar power generation to at least 100 gigawatts by 2022, this would create around one million jobs. some politicians and economists are placing great hopes in digitalisation, although precisely how it will im- pact on the labour market remains to be seen. some ex- perts fear a wipe-out of millions of jobs, while others are predicting a surge in employment. one thing is certain: digitalisation will turn our working world on its head yet again and will likely bring about a transformation as rad- ical as that which resulted from industrialisation. recruitment apps for casual workers according to deepak mishra, lead economist at the world bank, the positive employment effects of digital- isation will be felt mainly by highly specialised experts and low-skilled workers, who will be in greater demand. casual workers in the construction industry, for exam- ple, will benefit from online recruitment platforms that advertise temporary jobs. the need for skilled profes- sionals to implement the digital transformation is also increasing worldwide – whereas middle management is being dismantled in many companies. the internet ena- bles much of the knowledge held by organisations to be centralised, making it accessible for use at almost every level. as a consequence, some administrative roles and management tiers are disappearing. this suggests that it is in fact the emerging middle class in the developing countries who are most likely missing out on digitalisa- tion’s employment effects. nonetheless, many hopes rest on the virtual econ- omy. the german government’s strategy for africa
akzente 2/16 27 what will the working environment in industrialised countries look like in 2030? my basic thesis is that machines, robots and smart software are going to do a lot more of the work by that time. there will probably be less jobs and more competition among people for those jobs. in your book rise of the robots you predict mass unemployment due to computerisation and automation. such predictions are not new. what is different this time? the most important difference is that machines are now beginning to think. computers are now learning by themselves, which is why technology is going to replace all kinds of work – anything that is somehow routine and predictable regardless of the industry and in many cases regard- less of skill and education. that includes assembly-line type jobs which have, for the most part, already disappeared. but it also includes occupations like flipping hamburgers or driving vehicles. and most importantly it includes a huge number of knowledge-based jobs where you have people sitting in front of a computer doing the same kinds of tasks again and again. you mention the example of radiologists that could soon be replaced by computers. right. i think that is a job that is very likely to be automated completely at some point in the future, maybe not in the immediate future. but eventually computers are going to be better at interpreting visual images than humans to find out if there is a tumour. so this is an example of how it really isn’t only about low-skill jobs. what does that mean for societies as a whole and individuals in particular? it could be a great thing. if you imagine a future where no one has to do a job he or she hates. people have to work less and have more time, for leisure, family and so on. and that could happen but only if we adapt to it. what if we don’t? will our system collapse? if we do not adjust – in the long run, perhaps. if technology eliminates millions of jobs people cannot generate an income anymore. without that you face the risk of a downward economic spiral and poten- tially a crisis. so, eventually there is even a risk of social and political upheaval. and there’s a real danger that many people would lose confidence in capitalism and seek an alternative. therefore you are calling for a basic minimum income. how would that be financed? it would have to be funded with taxes – likely a combination of more progressive taxation on corporations and/or the wealthy, as well as broad-based consumption taxes. for exam- ple a carbon tax would be a good way to generate some of the revenues required. what about developing nations. are they also facing a massive turnover of jobs? yes. this is a global issue. how will it affect the struggle against poverty? the challenge will be that the path to prosperity for poor countries has always been industrialisation: building factories that employ huge numbers of low-wage, unskilled workers. we are entering a future where those types of factories will no longer exist. so, how will poor countries and their populations become wealthy? we will have to devise an alternative path. the future you imagine – is it bright or dark? i tend to be a long term optimist and a short term pessimist. we can imagine a utopian future where machines do much of the work – or at least the work that people do not enjoy. however, that optimistic future can be realised only if we solve the income distribution problem. that will be a huge political and social challenge. so, i worry about a crisis before we finally make the necessary adaption. interview: friederike bauer ‘any job could be affected’ as automation proceeds, many jobs will be lost, says martin ford. we have to come up with new ways of generating income or else our economies face disruptions. martin ford is a software specialist, entrepreneur in silicon valley and author of numerous books. the most recent is entitled rise of the robots, in which ford explores how digitisation is changing our world of work. his ideas have caused a sensation in the usa – and, among other accolades, earned him the business book of the year award from the financial times and mckinsey. photo: xiaoxiao zhao akzente 2/1627
akzente 2/16 28 on the road: better transport links in many countries enable people to commute to work, sometimes over long distances. ‘work rules!’ by laszlo bock, head of people op- erations at google, claims to offer ‘insights … that will transform how you live and lead’. published by john murray. identifies digitalisation as a priority area – and with good reason, for wage levels in africa’s it industry already ex- ceed wages in agriculture and retail by a factor of up to 200. the smartphone is the tool bringing the most en- during changes to africa’s labour market. recruitment apps are already in widespread use: one example is the giraffe app, which offers low-cost recruitment agency services in south africa. employers post details of the job, location, start date and wages, and workers can offer their services. also in south africa, migrant workers can use the mowoza app on their smartphones to order and pre-pay for groceries and have them delivered directly to their families in their home villages. by 2050, africa will have more people of working age than india or china, but many of today’s jobs will have disappeared with the shift from agriculture to in- dustry. at present, agriculture employs 62 per cent of the population in sub-saharan africa and around half the population in asia. there are already signs that this pro- portion will decrease markedly as a result of the transi- tion to a more industrialised and digital urban economy. globalisation of employment will continue to be a key trend in future. here too, digitalisation is the strongest driver. international software corporations already em- ploy large numbers of developers in the indian city of bangalore, while german companies have opened call centres in manila. the philippines has long been a global centre of business process outsourcing – the contracting of business activities to a third-party provider. demand for these services will increase: a study by roland berger, the global strategy consultancy, forecasts that in 2030, there will be a shortage of around 50 million trained workers on the european market across a variety of sec- tors, but especially in the it industry. so there is no shortage of work ahead – but right across the globe, the biggest task will be to make sure that this translates into enough decent jobs with fair contracts and adequate pay. www.giz.de/economic-development www.giz.de/vocational-education-training
in focus 29 akzente 2/16 work gives dignity to women’s lives guest article by ela bhatt profile ela bhatt is an indian lawyer and activist. in 1972, she founded the self employed women’s association of india (sewa). although india has almost 20,000 trade unions, most workers are not organised; as a consequence, they do not earn fixed wages. there is a strong informal economy, generating an estimated 60 per cent of gdp, 40 per cent of exports and most of the country’s jobs. d ecent work and productive employ- ment are key pathways to reducing hunger and violence and to bringing peace to the world. however, most working poor in developing countries, especially women, are engaged in the informal econo- my which is associated with low average earn- ings and high risks. the informal workforce lacks economic opportunities, legal rights, social protection, organised strength plus the right of represen- tation. in short, these working poor women remain invisible, voiceless and undervalued. furthermore, they are often stigmatised, pe- nalised and even criminalised for what they do to earn an honest living. but in my experience, women are the key to building a nation. if women are at the centre, their productive work is the thread that weaves a society together. when they have work, they can build assets that can re- duce their vulnerability. they can invest in the next generation. life is no longer just about survival, but about investing in a better future. work builds peace, because work gives people roots, it builds communities and it gives meaning and dignity to one’s life. by work i do not mean factory jobs, but rather sweatshops and cheap labour that turn a person into a slave through yet another kind of exploitation. by work, i mean the production of food, clothing and housing, including with access to water. i mean the upgrading of existing and traditional skills that people have possessed for thousands of years – agriculture, animal husbandry, fish- ing, textile weaving, house building. this work feeds people and it restores the relation- ship with the self, with fellow human beings, with the earth and the environment, and with the great spirit that created us all. we can help local producers build links to mainstream markets. we can help them find access to financial and technological ser- vices. we can ensure that their voice, espe- cially that of the working poor, is heard at the policy-making level. political freedom is in- complete without economic freedom. it is not until people have both that we will get lasting peace. let me end by citing puriben ahir. she is a woman who lives in the dry, desert vil- lage of madhutra and has done many types of hard manual labour, from agriculture to breaking stones, digging mud and looking after cattle. she is also a skilled embroiderer. her handcraft work, rooted in local culture and social relations, has been combined with contemporary marketing strategies, and in that way has become part of her live- lihood. today she says: ‘i feel proud when- ever i work. it shows my skill, it makes me self-reliant, it increases my status, and i know i am contributing to my family and society. to me embroidery is happiness and work combined.’ puriben ahir’s example shows: there is potential for alternative and holistic forms of work, for decent and productive work, and for peaceful societies, but we have to actively pursue that path. photo: laif/julia knop (page 28), illustration: elliot beaumont (page 29)
through the lens
‘to drink tea is to forget the noise of the world,’ as the chinese saying goes. even the tea leaves, spread out to dry in the chinese province of fujian, radiate calm. tea is a significant economic factor for many asian and african regions: china alone exported around 96,000 tonnes in 2015. with giz’s support, tea farmers around the world are switching to sustain- able growing methods and achieving success all along the value chain from production to marketing. photo: reuters harmony and prosperity
akzente 2/16 32 background martha gutierrez heads giz’s governance, crisis management and construction division. in supporting refugees, internally displaced persons and host communities, giz works closely with non-governmental organisations. martha gutierrez talks about the high value of these partnerships. vital partners w hen ‘islamic state’ militants overran the yazidis’ villages in sinjar in northern iraq, tens of thousands of people fled. many of them initially found shelter in abandoned half-finished buildings. in order to winterproof them as quickly as possible, giz worked with welthungerhilfe, installing plastic doors and windows to make the concrete shells habitable. this rapid response to a crisis is a good example of how giz is collaborating suc- cessfully with non-governmental organisa- tions (ngos) to provide refugees with the support they need. in northern iraq, where we are working on behalf of the german government, there is close cooperation with german, international and local ngos – not only welthungerhilfe but also forum civil peace service, medica mondiale and harikar, an iraqi organisation with a strong track record in providing legal advice and psychosocial support for refugees. although this collaboration is particu- larly intensive at present due to the refugee crisis, partnerships with ngos are not a new feature of giz’s work. the diversity of the ngos’ approaches is a good fit for offi- cial development cooperation, especially in fragile states. through their networks, ngos often have direct access to the most marginalised groups within society. pre- cisely because they are not linked with the government, they are deeply rooted within the country and have relatively broad scope for action. giz, for its part, has the political con- tacts needed for effective cooperation with government bodies. we thus ensure that the deployment of partner ngos is integrated into the wider policy framework, and we also encourage local authorities, for exam- ple, to make provision for the continuation these joint activities create vital synergies – and making use of them means faster pro- gress. there are many more examples: in ukraine, we are working with german and local ngos to deliver language and com- puter courses for displaced persons, offering them prospects for the future. in kenya and turkey, the international rescue commit- tee (irc) is a key partner: in kakuma refu- gee camp in kenya, for example, we have jointly improved health care provision, and in reyhanlı on the turkish-syrian border, we are supporting a youth centre. the structures and financial organisa- tion of these cooperative arrangements vary. in some cases, our client envisages the in- volvement of ngos from the outset. in others, we ourselves sign contracts with ngos because we believe this is the best way to reach people in need. of course, this form of cooperation does not always run smoothly. we have to respect the fact that ngos conduct their own public relations activities indepen- dently, and that they sometimes openly ex- press political views that are very different from our own. this can cause frictions, es- pecially in our dealings with partner govern- ments or embassies. but the benefits are the overriding factor. when it comes to sup- porting refugees, pragmatism prevails, for all sides recognise the immense and seem- ingly endless challenges. previous ‘background’ articles on giz’s work can be found here: akzente.giz.de/en of project activities when planning their budgets. in addition, the ngos build local organisations’ technical and commercial ca- pacities to implement projects themselves. as just one example, we are working with ngos on expanding and equipping schools and health centres for refugees and host communities, with ngos often taking on the management of smaller construction projects under giz’s supervision. illustration: elliot beaumont
precious water, valuable opportunity jordan how fatima ahmad mubarak and other syrian refugees became professional plumbers. page 34 better cocoa, better lives côte d’ivoire why cocoa producer gaston kouassi yao’s yields are higher and of better quality than before – and how he is helping others to achieve the same. page 42 protecting the coastal forest costa rica how mangroves from francisca gutierrez reyes’ nursery are helping the country to cope with the consequences of climate change. page 38 commitment where giz is active, how it approaches new challenges, what its projects achieve: three examples of giz’s current work in costa rica, côte d’ivoire and jordan.
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commitment 35 akzente 2/16 a sia khaled salamed fled homs in 2011. maryam ahmad hariri left da- mascus two years later. shatha ahmad turned her back on her war-torn home in 2014. fatima ahmad mubarak from daraa in southwest syria decided in 2015 that leav- ing her home was her only option. today, these four women live as refugees in jordan. as they stand together in the classrooms at the hakam vocational school in irbid, one of the country’s three largest cities some 70 kilo- metres north of the capital amman, they seem remarkably cheerful. dressed in grey overalls, they report on the terrible events back home. but they also talk of their new, positive experiences at the vocational school. here it is all about hands-on learning. asia khaled salamed, 39 years old, and fa- tima ahmad mubarak, three years her junior, lift a washbasin on its side. maryam ahmad hariri, 34, and shatha ahmad, 24, unscrew the fixing ring holding the mixer tap. brigitte schlichting watches their work with a stern yet benevolent eye. ‘that’s good,’ she says and nods approvingly at the four syrian women. khaled salamed smiles. in their for- mer lives the four women were a seamstress, a hairdresser, a housewife and a student. each is a mother to several children. all four fled the country, with or without their husband, as the situation dictated. they abandoned their homes and their belongings – if these had not already been destroyed in the war. determined to help rebuild syria one day now these four stand alongside 11 other syr- ian women and 14 women from jordan at the vocational school’s long workbenches. schlichting is their teacher, a 53-year-old master plumber from berlin. her job is to pass on her passion for the job of sabaka or plumber. she has been working as one herself for more than 30 years and has her own plumbing business in berlin. khaled salamed also wants to become a plumber and – as soon as she is able to return to syria – use her skills to help rebuild the de- stroyed city of homs. ‘just like the trümmer- frauen who helped rebuild germany out of the rubble of the second world war,’ she says, as she continues work on a fitting. ‘and i in- tend to work for myself, i want to be inde- pendent of a husband’s income,’ adds fatima ahmad mubarak. none of the four women considered migrating to europe as an option. jordan is close to their home, the culture is similar – and they all want to return as soon as possible when the war is over. a small, energetic woman, khaled sala- med is already putting into practice the skills she has learned in the course. by helping out friends and relatives, she is able to supplement the 20 dinars (equivalent to around eur 25) the refugees in jordan receive per month from aid organisations. officially they are not al- lowed to do other work. after her hazardous escape from homs by car, on foot and by bus, khaled salamed found a small apartment in irbid. she has been living there with her six children since 2011. today she thinks noth- ing of dismantling a tap or fixing leaks in the pipes at home. and she even has the confi- dence to tackle other jobs around the apart- ment. ‘when the fluorescent light stopped working, i took it apart. the contacts had worked loose – it wasn’t a problem.’ the plumbing course is just one of the projects run by giz in jordan. it has two ob- jectives: to provide refugees with career pros- pects, and in addition help tackle one of the country’s most pressing problems – a shortage of water. jordan is one of the most arid coun- tries on earth. according to german expert daniel busche, 40 per cent of the water is lost as a result of leaking taps and dilapidated pipes. the german federal ministry for eco- refugees in jordan are learning to be plumbers. the training is opening up new horizons – and helping the country to solve its water problem. precious water, valuable opportunity text rolf obertreis photos thomas imo a life left behind: fatima ahmad mubarak, maryam ahmad hariri, shatha ahmad and asia khaled salamed (clockwise from top left). in syria they studied or had jobs in hairdressing or dressmaking. today they are learning a very different trade.
36 akzente 2/16 nomic cooperation and development (bmz) currently supports plumbing courses for approximately 300 women and men, 40 per cent of them syrian refugees. at the end of the course, each participant receives a box of tools to enable them to set up their own business or form a cooperative. their role model is brigitte schlichting. she comes to irbid for a few weeks two or three times a year. she motivates the women, builds their self-confidence and strengthens their role in the male-dominated, islamic so- ciety. initially the men scoffed at the idea of plumbing courses for women, explains shatha ahmad. ‘they thought the work was too physical for us.’ she and the others disagreed. in the meantime they have earned the respect of the men. ‘quite a lot of them have two left hands and do more harm than good when it comes to repairing things,’ says fatima ah- mad mubarak with a smile. another person who has enormous re- spect for the women in irbid is hazim el- naser. as minister of water and irrigation, he holds one of the key posts in the jordanian government. in jordan, the average amount of water available for each individual per year is 100 cubic metres. the amount in germany is around 20 times higher. eighty per cent of jordan’s land area is desert. ‘the volume of refugees from syria has exacerbated the prob- lem considerably,’ explains el-naser. ‘de- mand for water suddenly went up by a quar- ter. and in the north, close to the border, where most of the syrians have ended up, it has almost doubled.’ the groundwater level is dropping by a metre a year on average, some- times by as much as five metres. everyone, jordanians included, is having to ration their use of water. stretched to the breaking point in mafraq, for example, a city in the north of the country, the population has doubled to around 200,000 as a result of the refugee crisis. some claim the figure is three times what it was. ten kilometres east of mafraq, around 80,000 people currently live in the zaatari refugee camp, a site covering an area the size of 750 football pitches. only by making urgent appeals to the population, raising prices and destroying 800 illegal farmers’ wells have the authorities been able to prevent the water supply from total col- lapse, the minister explains. but el-naser knows that this is not enough – particularly as it is impossible to predict how long the 640,000 refugees will stay in jordan, which itself has a population of just 6.5 million. so every opportunity to save water is being exploited. imams and muslim counsellors are being given information on ways to save water and their mosques are be- ing equipped with new plumbing. each year top: syrian and jordanian women are instructed by master plumber brigitte schlichting from berlin. below: around 80,000 people live at the zaatari refugee camp. most of them are syrians. additional content on the akzente app and website: a video about teaching the plumbers of the future. akzente.giz.de/en
37 akzente 2/16 commitment > contact thomas schneider > firstname.lastname@example.org capital: amman population: 6.5 million gross domestic product: usd 35.8 billion1 economic growth: 3.1 per cent1 human development index ranking: 80 (out of 188) source: 1 world bank 2014 pros in demand project: support for jordanian communities in response to the syrian refugee crisis through water wise plumbers (wwp) commissioned by: german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development lead executing agency: jordanian ministry of water and irrigation (mwi) term: 2014 to 2016 jordan is one of the most arid countries in the world. to make matters worse, a great deal of water is wasted on account of leaking or badly installed pipes. and with hundreds of thousands of syrians having fled across the border because of the war in their home country, these already scarce resources now have to meet the needs of even more people. the problem is being alleviated by training refugees to become plumbers, helping to stem water losses in the governorates of amman and irbid. currently, there are not enough skilled workers to install, maintain and repair water pipes. the training also provides refugees with career prospects and the ability to earn an income of their own. the project’s key partners include the state tvet provider vocational training corporation and two vocational schools in each of the governorates of amman and irbid. jordan www.giz.de/en/worldwide/32347.html jordan saudi arabia israel in amman alone, 500 million litres of water are used for ritual washing before prayer and to clean the mosques. the goal is to reduce this by a third. during prayer, khaled al khatib, the imam at the usama ibn zaid mosque in mafraq, refers to the importance of using water sparingly, and quotes relevant verses from the koran. in the training courses, he and the other imams also learn about rain- water collection systems and about recycling grey water for agricultural or industrial use. imams and muslim counsellors as ‘water ambassadors’ ‘over 90 per cent of jordanians and syrians attend a mosque,’ says german expert björn zimprich. so the imams and muslim coun- sellors are important multipliers. the project has already trained 800 of them to become ‘water ambassadors’ since 2015, with almost one thousand more to follow. meanwhile, there is plenty of work to be done in households and apartments across jordan for brigitte schlichting’s trainee band of female plumbers. but the women have one major advantage over their male counter- parts: female plumbers can carry out repairs even when only women are in the house. ac- cording to islamic understanding, a male plumber can work in the building only when the master of the house is present. and are women allowed to work on plumbing instal- lations at the mosque, too? imam al khatib nods. ‘of course,’ he says. but his expression betrays the fact that this is nothing short of a minor revolution. the 56-year-old cleric with friendly eyes and a full black beard ex- plains the one caveat: it can only happen pro- vided no men are attending the mosque. but that is not a problem for the women on the current course, he says. nor, one assumes, for the 100 or more whose names are on the waiting list for the next. syria palestinian territories
38 akzente 2/16 38 climate change also poses a threat to costa rica. the country has an ambitious plan to confront the changes – with mangroves playing a key role. protecting the coastal forest text hauke friederichs photos jose díaz
commitment 39 akzente 2/16 f rancisca gutierrez reyes splits open a palm-sized white clam with the long blade of her machete. piangua they call them here on the nicoya peninsula on the pacific coast of costa rica. the tiny woman skilfully levers the shell apart and holds up the two halves. gutierrez reyes, who is known to her neighbours only as doña panchica, collected the piangua at the beach. judging by the 52-year-old’s weather-beaten face, it is clear she has spent most of her life outdoors. until recently she spent her time foraging at the beach, but these days her place of work is her own small business – a mangrove nursery. the nursery lies in the shade of a few tall trees. nearby four large pigs roll around in the dirt. the nursery has neither walls nor a fixed roof, just a green tarpaulin stretched over two rows of wooden pallets, where the delicate mangrove saplings press against each other. one day these young plants will grow into a protective barrier of mighty trees. as soon as gutierrez reyes’ saplings reach a certain height, staff from a reforesta- tion project collect them for transplanting in the heavy, moist soil of the nicoya penin- sula. this is costa rica’s approach to pro- tecting its coastline and improving its car- bon footprint. with the declared aim of be- coming climate neutral by 2021, the central american country already has lofty ambi- tions when it comes to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. to achieve that objective, costa rica needs projects like the one on nicoya, where the aim is to plant around 5,000 mangroves per hectare. gutierrez reyes will supply several hundred of these. ‘i’ll sell the mangroves to fundecodes,’ she says. fundecodes is a local environmental organisation which relies on people like gutierrez reyes to help with reforestation. using green tourism to become an environmental role model the mangroves provide her with a much- needed supplementary income – her only other source is from the clams, crabs and shrimps she collects along the coast and ex- changes for other goods. gutierrez reyes and most of her neighbours are among the 20 per cent of costa ricans who live below the pov- erty line. so in addition to its goal of coastal and climate protection, the mangrove pro- ject, which was launched in late 2014, also has an additional objective: to improve in- come opportunities for people in the region. it will benefit around 300 families. as she does most mornings, gutierrez reyes has been out collecting clams among the nearby mangroves. there are few trees here now – years of ruthless exploitation have completely transformed the landscape. it started with the artificial lagoons, created by the salt farmers to extract thousands of tonnes of salt from the ocean. but making a profit from salt has become increasingly dif- ficult since the 1980s, and one by one the saltworks have been abandoned by the salt farmers. in their place came the many shrimp farms, which involved the destruction of even more coastal forest. then a few years ago, the government finally made any further deforestation of the mangrove forests illegal. but there has been little effort to replant the nicoya forests – until now. the costa rican authorities intend to restore a section of the devastated mangrove forest on nicoya – with support from ger- many. on behalf of the german federal ministry for the environment, nature con- servation, building and nuclear safety (bmub), giz is helping the central ameri- can country to adapt to the impacts of cli- mate change. in common with neighbouring states, costa rica also fears a rise in sea levels, acidification of the oceans and changed weather patterns. even now, people on ni- coya complain that the dry season is lasting longer and the rainy season is starting later than they did just a few years ago. the mangroves play a key role in costa rica’s efforts, since they are perfectly adapted to the coastal region. mangroves drive deep and extensive root systems into the ground. they also provide an ideal habitat for many animal species: the salty waters of the flooded forests are now a breeding ground for fish, clams and shrimps. today over half the country is covered by forest, compared with just one fifth in 1987. environmental awareness has also in- creased considerably in recent decades, not least because costa rica has benefited from ‘green tourism’. from the environmental point of view, the central american country is leading by example. other states in the re- gion are doing less to protect the natural en- vironment. in el salvador, for example, only 13 per cent of the country’s land area is cov- ered by forest. private sector partners for ambitious goals notwithstanding the successful restoration of the forests, the government in the capital san josé wants to go even further and is aiming to turn as much as 60 per cent of the country’s surface green. for without the forests, costa rica cannot achieve its ambitious goal of cli- mate neutrality. and since mangroves store up to 40 per cent more carbon dioxide than trees in a conventional dry forest, the nicoya peninsula will play a key part in ensuring that by 2021 costa rica will absorb the same vol- ume of co2 emissions as it produces. reforestation on the peninsula has in- volved close cooperation between german experts and the environmental conservation organisation fundecodes, whose staff re- ceived advice and training in developing fi- nancial plans. now in collaboration with the major task: the delicate saplings in francisca gutierrez reyes’ nursery will one day form part of a dense mangrove forest.
akzente 2/16 40 approximately usd 100 million. the coun- try is aiming to raise half that figure on its own, with the remainder coming from pri- vate partners. long-term commitment to environment and business ‘there is a major gap in funding,’ says mi- chael schlönvoigt of giz. ‘collaboration with the private sector is urgently needed.’ the german company ristic is providing fi- nance for the planting of mangroves on ni- coya. ristic exports organic shrimps from costa rica to germany and the united states. it already has many shrimp farmers under contract on nicoya, whose farms are located where once there were mangroves. reforestation is clearly an environmental top: welcome by-product – more mangroves (right) means more clams (left). not only do they taste delicious, they also provide francisca gutierrez reyes and her neighbours with an additional source of income. below: prudent financing – german company ristic sells organically certified shrimp from costa rica (right). by way of compensation, the company undertakes to support reforestation of the mangrove forests (left) on nicoya. national system of conservation areas (sinac), fundecodes will continue imple- menting the successfully initiated mangrove project autonomously. giz worked with sinac to develop management plans for 17 marine and coastal conservation areas. for the first time, these plans incorporate adaptation to climate change. one quarter of the land area of costa rica is already under environmental protec- tion, but much still needs to be done along its coastline and waterways. the government has already designated around 9,800 square kilometres as maritime conservation areas, with a further 3,500 square kilometres to fol- low in the near future. but costa rica needs continued sup- port, in particular with financing, if it is to implement the plans. the sum required is
commitment 41 akzente 2/16 > contact michael schlönvoigt > email@example.com protection issue for the bavarian company, but there is also a commercial interest: the project is recognised as environmental com- pensation for shrimp production on the pen- insula, and this in turn is necessary for or- ganic certification. the company has made an initial com- mitment to providing usd 50,000. this will be used to restore 10 hectares of man- grove forest. ristic has already announced that it will invest an additional usd 450,000 over the next 20 years to permit re- forestation of a further 100 hectares in costa rica. the company is aiming to re- cruit other dedicated partners to this project from the german retail trade. habitat and protective barrier in one so francisca gutierrez reyes’ small nursery may not be the sole operation producing mangrove saplings for much longer. the en- trepreneur is on her way to visit the area to be reforested with her trees. wearing rubber boots covered in mud, she sinks up to her an- kles in the soft soil, the ground around her crawling with a hundreds of brown crabs car- rying aloft their oversized right claws. as soon as they sense the approach of gutierrez reyes’ feet, they scurry back into their tiny holes. soon this is where the young mangroves from her nursery will be planted. although climate change mitigation for gutierrez reyes remains an abstract concept, she is well aware that the mangroves not only protect her family against storm floods and other maritime hazards, they also bring ‘the blessing of the ocean’. after all, most of the pi- angua clams she finds are at the foot of these trees. and more mangroves means more clams. ‘with just a squeeze of lemon,’ reyes says, they are ‘absolutely delicious. and very healthy.’ she hopes one day to see nicoya re- stored to the green paradise it once was – cov- ered in a thousand mangroves. capital: san josé population: 4.9 million gross domestic product: usd 49.6 billion1 economic growth: 3.5 per cent1 human development index ranking: 69 (out of 188) source: 1 world bank 2014 for people and climate project: biomarcc marine and coastal biodiversity of costa rica – capacity building and adaptation to climate change commissioned by: german federal ministry for the environment, nature conservation, building and nuclear safety (bmub) lead executing agency: sistema nacional de áreas de conservación (national system of conservation areas – sinac) of the ministry of environment and energy (minae) term: 2010 to 2015 in order to mitigate the negative consequences of climate change in costa rica, giz is advising the country in a number of ways. for example, plans have been developed for the future of 17 marine and coastal conservation areas. in addition, the project has advised national partners on setting up five new protection zones and supported them in training their staff. training courses were also organised for staff at a local non- governmental organisation involved in reforestation of the areas. costa rica is commit- ted to involving private companies in financing protection zones. giz has also advised the german company ristic ag on developing a financing plan. this will guarantee res- toration of the mangrove forests and offer economic prospects for the local population. costa rica www.giz.de/en/worldwide/25528.html costa rica panama honduras nicaragua
42 akzente 2/16 commitment g aston kouassi yao sits astride a tree stump, squinting in the morning sun- shine. the 40-year-old farmer is con- tent, and the reason for his good mood is all around him: neat rows of cocoa trees, ideally spaced two and a half to three metres apart, with a few taller trees shading the others from too much sun. he is also satisfied with his latest round of pruning, in which he removed all the branches and shoots that would not bear fruit. when a plantation is cared for and laid out according to a system in this way, it should bring the farmer a reasonable yield. here in kongokro, a settlement near the departmental capital of gagnoa, yao owns six hectares of land inherited from his father. he runs his fingers over the trunk of one of his trees with something approaching reverence. ‘this one is over 40 years old – older than me.’ yao is clearly proud of the cocoa farming tradition his family started here in 1954. he regrets just one thing – that his father never really had an opportunity to further his edu- cation. he never learned, for example, the importance of maintaining the plantation. ‘the soil became tired, so yields began to drop off.’ now yao has managed to modern- ise two hectares, introducing measures such as specialist techniques for pruning. he in- tends to do the same with the remaining four hectares as soon as possible. for this he will receive specific support. this support is provided free of charge to farmers through a project set up by giz on behalf of the retail group lidl, which pro- motes sustainable cocoa production in côte d’ivoire. to achieve this, lidl collaborated with giz to develop the agricultural school procacao. the project also places a spe- cial focus on promoting women and strength- ening biodiversity. since 2012, the school, which is monitored by the national agency for rural development (anader), has been teaching farmers of both genders how to handle young plants, for example, or about the benefits of a new cocoa variety named mercedes. along with providing seminar rooms, the school also has a large cocoa plan- tation where participants can put their newly acquired knowledge into practice. sharing new knowledge with other farmers gaston kouassi yao has already taken part in two training courses on sustainable co- coa production organised by procacao. he now passes on his newly acquired knowledge as a multiplier. every week he teaches between 15 and 30 participants at the small field school set up for the purpose on his own cocoa plantation. over 2,300 farmers have done the same as yao and now share their knowledge with others. by the end of 2017 it is hoped that the project will have reached around 18,000 farmers in côte d’ivoire, the world’s largest cocoa-pro- ducing country. the training courses also deal with the issue of employment. for decades, girls and boys have carried out heavy physical work in the fields instead of going to school, using ma- chetes and fertilisers with no form of protec- tion. in 2015, a study carried out by tulane university of new orleans found that cocoa plantations in côte d’ivoire and neighbour- ing ghana employed around two million un- derage workers. lidl rejects this practice and together with giz is committed to changing the situation. customers are also beginning to demand cocoa grown in ways that pose no ethical issues. lidl is now able to prove this with the aid of a label. ‘certification means transparency,’ says andrea göddecke, the ag- ricultural scientist in charge of the project. farmer yao also wants to cultivate certi- fied cocoa. he is working hard to meet the criteria for the quality label awarded by such organisations as fairtrade and rainforest al- liance. another such organisation is utz, whose name derives from the mayan lan- guage and means ‘good’. to gain the certifi- no country produces more cocoa than côte d’ivoire. with certification and training, farmers can increase their income and cultivate their land more sustainably. better cocoa, better lives text katrin gänsler photos jakob ganslmeier ripe for harvesting: the precious cocoa beans form inside the pod, which grows directly from the trunk and is carefully removed as soon as it is ripe. the next step is fermentation.
akzente 2/16 44 capital: yamoussoukro population: 22.7 million1 gross domestic product: usd 34.3 billion2 economic growth: 8.5 per cent2 human development index ranking: 172 (out of 188) source: 1 world bank 2015, 2 world bank 2014 knowledge and income projects: several projects geared to sustainable cocoa farming commissioned by: german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development, lidl côte d’ivoire is the global market leader in cocoa production. yet many cocoa farmers are unable to live from their income. giz is therefore committed to improving their circumstances. in addition to the procacao agricultural school established on behalf of lidl and the second project presented here, the country is currently implementing three other projects geared to sustainable cocoa pro- duction. one of these, commissioned by the german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development, focuses on preserving biodiversity in the taï and comoé national parks. the condition of the parks is crucial to successful agriculture. the project has already provided training for around 10,000 farmers. giz also works with the french company touton to improve farmers’ knowledge. in collaboration with biopartenaire, a subsidiary of chocolate manufacturer barry callebaut, and the french development agency afd, giz is introducing health insurance for farmers and their families. already 5,000 people are now insured. in addition, giz coordinates the sustainable cocoa forum, an initia- tive that brings to the table the german government, the german confectionary industry, trade and civil society. côte d’ivoire www.giz.de/en/worldwide/346.html côte d’ivoire ghana liberia mali cation, farmers must also prove that they fulfil certain environmental standards. these include moderate use of fertilisers, which can only be spread by farmers with specialist training. yao is happy to spread the word about environmentally friendly techniques, espe- cially when he can do so within his coopera- tive, which now includes over 1,600 small farmers. the cooperative system has existed in côte d’ivoire for decades but has been un- dergoing a renaissance in recent years, as it is through the cooperatives that farmers are able to obtain certification. and certification means higher incomes, since it enables a co- coa farmer to earn a premium of between usd 150 and usd 200 per tonne in addi- tion to the price fixed by the state of around eur 1.50 per kilo. the cooperatives – which currently number around 30 in total, with another 15 expected by the end of 2016 – also provide training courses. entrepreneurial thinking, planning for the future in the department capital gagnoa, simone pelagie bouabre is lacing up her heavy boots. her bag is packed, her moped stands at the ready. today she will visit toutoubré, a vil- lage where a little while ago she trained farm- ers. the 50-year-old works for anader, the national agency for rural development. anader employees can also become multi- pliers. giz has already provided training for over 160 employees like bouabre to teach farmers. and another 100 are on hand in the villages where they live to provide assistance with any issues farmers may have. since the launch of the project in côte d’ivoire in april 2010, more than 66,000 small farmers have learned to adopt a more entrepreneurial mind-set and plan more for the future. the project was commissioned by the german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development. toutoubré is only about half an hour from gagnoa. bouabre’s visits to the villages guinea burkina faso commitment
45 akzente 2/16 > contacts andrea göddecke (lidl project) > firstname.lastname@example.org annemarie matthess > email@example.com often involve a much longer and more ardu- ous journey. in addition, many of the field schools have neither electricity nor showers. in such cases, bouabre sleeps on a woven mat on the ground, just like everyone else. the agricultural engineer is relaxed about the prospect. ‘i’d much rather be doing this than sitting in an air-conditioned office all day.’ motivating more women for agriculture bouabre never travels without her brown and dark green notebooks packed with tips and exercises, ranging from advice on reinvesting profits to healthy eating. the expert deals with around a dozen topics during each of the weeklong courses in the villages. activi- ties include practical arithmetical exercises, drawing up business plans and calculating if it makes sense to arrange a loan. bouabre al- ways explains to the farmers why something is important – for example, measuring their fields accurately: ‘in the past, many farmers didn’t even know the size of their plantations. yet that knowledge is essential if you want to know how much fertiliser to use.’ one thing is of particular importance to the trainer – the need to encourage women to get involved in agriculture. ‘at some of the training courses they already outnumber the men. i always make them sit at the front and tell them to get involved and participate.’ until now, cocoa farming in côte d’ivoire has been a male domain. and yet many women also own plantations, either as a re- sult of an inheritance or because they sought an opportunity to invest their money in co- coa. bouabre herself grows cocoa. ‘my par- ents were farmers and i had my own field when i was still at school.’ after the death of her father, she fought to ensure that the land was not simply divided up among her broth- ers. her efforts paid off. ‘it is wonderful,’ she says, ‘to always be able to go back to your own land.’ above left: true to the family tradition – gaston kouassi yao’s father was also a cocoa farmer. the son is proud to have increased the yields. above right: a calling to train – agricultural engineer simone pelagie bouabre travels around the villages on her moped teaching cocoa farmers vital technical and business management skills. jakob ganslmeier the berlin-based photographer accompanied the reporter as one of two winners of the ‘blick- kontakte’ competition. organised jointly by giz and photo presse magazine, the competition provides a platform for promising young photographers.
5 6 akzente 2/16 46 special new akzente website goes live the new akzente website is now live, combining up-to-the- minute coverage of giz’s work around the world with striking visuals and interesting additional material. (5) the full akzente website is available in both english and german. and it’s easy to switch languages: just click en or de at the top of the page. (6) the social media functionality means you can share interesting content from akzente with friends and col- leagues: the ‘share’ icon by each article links to facebook and twitter, or you can email a link to the relevant content. visit our new website akzente.giz.de/en
2 1 3 4 47 akzente 2/16 (2) you can search the full website by keyword: just type the search term in the ‘search’ box next to the magnifying- glass icon. (3) the website can be used on all devices, enabling you to access the latest content on the go from your tablet or smartphone as well as via your pc or laptop. (4) the website includes supplementary videos and photo galleries for many of the articles, let- ting you get even closer to the people featured in the akzente reports. (1) the ‘menu’ button gives you rapid access to the content that interests you most: go straight to reports on particular regions or topics and articles on the key themes of each issue.
48 akzente 2/16 theatre in tbilisi drama festival in georgia tbilisi’s international festival of theatre combines top-flight international productions with the best new drama from georgia. launched only in 2009, this young festival has rapidly become a fixture on the international theatre scene. it has already featured berlin’s schaubühne and london’s shakespeare’s globe, and has also staged cross-border productions, including the sosani dance theatre (photo), whose dancers are georgian but work in germany. the festival runs from 24 september to 8 october 2016. www.tbilisiinternational.com/en/1 art in são paulo brazil’s biennale uncertainty and entropy – in other words disorder – these are the themes of the 32nd são paulo biennale, ‘live uncertainty’. the high-profile event is the world’s second oldest art biennale (after venice) and is showcasing artists from 33 countries in 2016. curator jochen volz says, ‘our intention is to get to grips with diversity, come face to face with the unknown and challenge our assump- tions about what we think we know.’ more than half of the artists exhibiting are women, and young creatives are also particularly well represented. the event runs from 10 september to 11 december 2016. www.bienal.org.br editor’s picks
small business – a big deal for biodiversity available in english this publication, pro- duced by the india busi- ness and biodiversity initiative with support from giz, is aimed at representatives of smes in india. it sets out opportunities for improv- ing biodiversity, for example by adopting in- novative business models and technologies and by using sustainable materials. data protection in the context of digital financial services and big data available in german nicola jentzsch the fact that more people than ever before now have direct access to financial services is largely the result of the digital revolution. this discussion paper out- lines the opportunities and risks that this rapidly developing technology represents for german development cooperation’s partner countries, with a particular focus on data protection. vocational training in the water sector available in german rüdiger heidebrecht, inke hase clean water and sanitary facilities for all are one of the global sustainable development goals, but experts in the sector are in short supply. poorly trained staff frequently cause water losses and manage wastewater in ways that are harmful to the environment. this study offers recommendations for high-quality non- academic training. giz publications litprom recommends these publications can be downloaded or ordered free of charge from www.giz.de/publications. 49 akzente 2/16 info blessed are the dead (original title: silent valley) crime fiction south africa, 1953. a young zulu woman has been murdered. the white police show no interest until detective sergeant emmanuel cooper and sergeant shabalala take on the case – and run up against the rigid apartheid that dominates the drakensberg mountains. this is a classic piece of crime fiction, with a compelling narrative, a multi-dimensional plot, and a poetic, utopian style. thomas wörtche, freelance arts journalist malla nunn, swaziland/australia atria books, 309 pages reputations novel a young woman accuses a very unpleasant politician of abusing her. a bold cartoonist targets him in his work. but is the suspicion levelled at him justified? can we always trust our eyes, let alone our memory? with his gripping and highly skilled portrayal of his characters, vásquez leaves it to the reader to decide. ruthard stäblein, literary critic and editor juan gabriel vásquez, colombia translated from spanish by anne mclean bloomsbury publishing, 192 pages litprom – the society for the promotion of african, asian and latin american literature – provided the reviews for akzente. the titles were selected from litprom’s list of best new novels. www.litprom.de
assessing risk – that’s ted callahan’s role in north-eastern afghanistan. callahan, a security advisor for giz, loves the scope his job gives him to get to know afghanistan well, though even he faces a few restrictions on his activities for security reasons. nevertheless, says callahan, ‘i really feel i’m back in afghanistan now.’ what does he mean? some time ago, before he joined giz in 2014, he spent eighteen months as an advisor at nato special operations headquarters in afghanistan, based mostly in kabul where he had little con- tact with ordinary afghan people. back in 2006, callahan’s first experience of the country was quite different: he carried out research into local politics in badakhshan province for his phd in anthropology. since then, he has spent part of each year in the hindu kush. for callahan and his fellow risk management advisors, travel is essential. to make reliable assessments, they need to observe and analyse the security situation in locations across the country, assessing which areas staff should avoid and advising on how they should conduct themselves. ted callahan also speaks one of the local languages, dari, which is an invaluable tool in his work. security expert giz is always looking for experts for its projects. interested? why not visit our ‘jobs and careers’ page: www.giz.de/careers. ted callahan introducing
s ustainability a look back at a project and its r e s u l t s nabi ck at nabi ck at inab at a s ustainab at a project and its r e s u l t s project: promotion of basic education in guinea commissioned by: german federal ministry for economic cooperation and development term: 2002 to 2012 then: with more than 40 per cent of its population under the age of 15, guinea is one of the world’s youngest nations. despite the huge need for basic education, only four out of every five children and young people in the country were attending school. girls and children in rural areas were rarely being educated, and the teaching they did receive was of a poor standard, as teachers lacked training. the 2008 military coup substantially worsened conditions. now: in labé, one of the two regions participating in the project, almost two out of every three girls progressed to secondary education in 2012, compared with just one in three across guinea as a whole. more than 10,000 students attend weekly remedial classes, and 90 per cent of school headteachers – around 6,500 individuals – have been trained in modern teaching and administration methods. around 95 per cent of primary teachers also receive regular in-service training. better sex education has also reduced the number of unwanted pregnancies among female students at the participating schools in labé from 58 in 2005 to just three in 2011. read the evaluation report at: www.giz.de/de/downloads/giz2012-de- guinea-bildung-expost-evaluierung.pdf (in german) health good health is essential to our personal wellbeing and that of our family. it is an issue for individuals and for society as a whole. yet many countries are still a long way from achieving na- tionwide health care: hospitals and medical staff are often in short supply, with even basic drugs or preview akzente issue 3/16 contraceptives unavailable in many cases. what are the prospects of tackling these shortages in the foreseeable future? and what new opportuni- ties does digitalisation offer, especially for poorer countries? answers to these and other questions will be provided in akzente 3/16. preview preview akzente issue 3/16 51 akzente 2/16 publisher: deutsche gesellschaft für internationale zusammenarbeit (giz) gmbh registered offices: bonn and eschborn, germany • friedrich-ebert-allee 36 + 40, 53113 bonn, germany tel.: +49 228 44 60-0, fax: +49 228 44 60-17 66 • dag-hammarskjöld-weg 1-5, 65760 eschborn, germany tel.: +49 61 96 79-0, fax: +49 61 96 79-11 15 sabine tonscheidt, director of corporate communications email: firstname.lastname@example.org internet: akzente.giz.de/en responsible: anja tomic, deputy director of corporate communications (giz) content concept and editing: giz: uta rasche (editor), miriam droller, kerstin nauth frankfurter societäts-medien gmbh: helen sibum (project management), friederike bauer, judith reker, oliver hick-schulz (layout), corinna potthoff (photo editing) english translation: judith steinau clark, hillary crowe, janet fraser, jodie mcgilvary, alan seaton; karl stellrecht (giz language services) proofreading: textschrittmacher, lübeck, germany graphic design/lithography: frankfurter societäts- medien gmbh, frankfurt, germany printed by: druckerei lokay e. k., reinheim, germany printed on: arctic volume, certified to fsc standards maps: giz/ira olaleye the maps are for information purposes only and do not constitute recognition under international law of boundaries and territories. giz does not guarantee in any way the current status, accuracy or completeness of the maps. all liability for any loss or damage arising directly or indirectly out of their use is excluded. cover: getty images/christian weber all images: giz unless otherwise stated copy deadline: august 2016 published: quarterly current issue: september 2016 issn: 0945-4497 articles by individual authors do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the publisher. akzente has received several awards for its high-quality journalism and design. in 2015 it won a silver medal at the best of corporate publishing award. akzente photos: farshad usyan (page 50), getty images/tek image (page 51) tel.: +492284460-0, fax: +492284460-1766 tel.: +49619679-0, fax: +49619679-1115
work secures us a livelihood, structures our lives and determines our social sta- tus. despite its vital role, it is a scarce commodity in many countries – and one that is frequently unregulated. akzente.giz.de/en